This feat was accomplished by Samuel B. Reed, chief of construction and formerly a locating engineer. Finding wood for ties on Nebraska's nearly treeless prairie was one of the UP's worst problems. Who was the engineer who directed the westward growth of the Union Pacific Railroad? Who operated a steel company in Pittsburg? A newspaper reporter present at the construction in 1866 wrote, "The track laying on the Union Pacific was a science. Crews returned to using black powder and after a year, the 1,600-foot tunnel was complete. The actual cost to Credit Mobilier was $44,000,000. The Central Pacific would build from the west and the Union Pacific from the east. Weather was a constant opponent as well. Grenville Dodge. Taking the law into his own hands, Jack Casement undertook the discipline of the most incorrigible railroad workers. . As the road extended westward, canyons full of cedar trees near North Platte fell to the ax, and workers crafted hewn ties in the mountain forests of Wyoming. According to the Chinese Railroad Workers Project, Central Pacific started with a crew of 21 Chinese workers in January 1864. It was now possible to leave San Francisco and arrive in New York in 10 days. The occasion was commemorated with the ceremonial joining of the last rails and the driving of the last, now-famous, golden spike. . A shortage of workers in California forced the Central Pacific Railroad to hire about 10,000 workers from. Eventually crews constructed enclosed wooden snow sheds around the track, enabling them to continue making progress. The Indians repeatedly attacked without warning, and the UP acted as its own army. From the Native Americans' perspective, it was imperative to protect their families and homeland against the imminent invasion of a flood of immigrants. It made sense for big corporations to continue operating during poor economic times, their operating costs were small, compared to their fixed costs. Pushing west through Wyoming was exhausting and treacherous. The workers, many of them Irish immigrants or veterans of the Civil War, were paid the average of a dollar a day. The skies cleared over Promontory on May 10, 1869. Dodge wrote, "Central Wyoming was desolate, dreary, not susceptible to cultivation and only portions of it fit for grazing." The crews worked seven days a week, 12 to 16 hours a day, with few weekends to themselves. The Central Pacific broke ground on the first transcontinental railroad Jan. 8, 1863, and built east from Sacramento. and a legend was born. What were the two railroads companies that built the transcontinental railroad? Thanks to the support of the Union Pacific Foundation and several other donors, the John W. Barriger III National Railroad Library is able to make some of … We, pundits of the far East, stood upon that embankment, only about a thousand miles this side of sunset, and backed westward before that hurrying corps of sturdy operators with a mingled feeling of amusement, curiosity and profound respect. Lincoln signed it into law on July 1. Despite the constraints imposed by transportation needs, and the sheer amount of handwork to be done, progress was made. Because the work was proceeding so slowly, a very volatile explosive, nitroglycerin, was brought to the scene. Black blasting powder was then tamped into the holes, a very dangerous occupation considering the fact that the least spark could ignite the powder and blow a crew to bits. By the end of 1865, the UP had spent more than $500,000 and laid only 40 miles of track, or as one newspaper said, "two streaks of rust across the Nebraska prairie." the total value of all goods and services that a country produces, Why did supporters of laissez-faire believe the government should interfere with the, to protect property rights and maintain peace. What little free time they had they spent in drinking, carousing and fighting. The crews lived in 20 cars, including dormitories and an arsenal car containing a thousand loaded rifles. The longest trestle on the line, it rose 150 feet up from the bottom of the canyon, swayed in the wind and was terrifying to cross. Complaint was made to me by the Central Pacific people, and I endeavored to have the contractors bring all hostilities to a close, but for some reason or other, they failed to do so. West of Cheyenne, one encounters some of the most inclement weather in the country. How did the expansion of railroads spur America's industrial growth? They come forward at a run. Dodge wrote, "The Central Pacific had made wonderful progress coming east, and we abandoned the work from Promontory to Humboldt Wells, bending all our efforts to meet them at Promontory. The point of conjoinment for the two railroads was established as Promontory Point, Utah. In a letter to his brother, Dodge wrote, " . Some labor supporters were anarchists, who believed that society did not need any, The Kinghts of Labor suffered a steady decline in membership and influence due to lost. to encourage the rapid construction of the tracks, Before the _____________________, most manufacturing enterprises were owned by a few. The moment the car is empty it is tipped over on the side of the track to let the next loaded car pass it, and then it is tipped back again, and it is a sight to see it go flying back for another load, propelled by a horse at full gallop at the end of sixty or eighty feet of rope. The meeting site at the summit of Promontory Point permitted completion of the railroad without having to build across any portion of the Great Salt Lake, a feat that may have been either too difficult technologically or just too time consuming for the parties involved. It is in triple time, three strokes to the spike. Construction of the Union Pacific Railroad pushed west from. The railroad had opened the heart of the continent, changing it forever. THE RAILROADS OF NEBRASKA THE UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD. A shortage of workers in California forced the Central Pacific Railroad to hire about 10,000 workers from. From the Native Americans' perspective, it was imperative to protect their families and homeland against the imminent invasion of a flood of immigrants. When a union called a strike, employers would often hire replacements, called: Who saw capitalism as s struggle between workers and owners? Therefore, as we moved westward, every hundred miles added vastly to our transportation. There was no mystery about how to do the job. From that time the Irish laborers showed due respect for the Chinamen, and there was no further trouble.". To construct a road, the Union Pacific had to cross land occupied by American Indians. Did most unions in the late 1800s include women? Dodge wrote, "They could lay from one to three miles of track per day as they had material, and one day laid eight-and-a-half miles." Ridges were carved and blasted through. This is where the rails met and the ceremony took place on May 10, 1869, at Promontory Summit. There was a chronic labor shortage, as most able-bodied men preferred trying to strike it rich in the gold mines. company owns all of the different businesses on which it depends for its operation, . The Union Pacific began laying track from Omaha to the west while the Central Pacific headed east from Sacramento. The Union Pacific then contracted with Credit Mobilier to construct 667 miles of the railroad. By the second year of work on the CP's construction, nine out of ten of the workers were Chinese. The solution was practically larger than life. In an era when most IT organizations look to buy off-the-shelf software, avoid doing custom coding, and allow the use of more mass-market consumer technology than they ever thought possible, Union Pacific CIO Lynden Tennison is an unapologetic believer in building rather than always buying the hardware, software, and systems that underpin its $20 billion railroad shipping business. "East and West shaking hands at laying of the last rail," Promontory Summit, Utah. Less than thirty seconds to a rail, and so four rails go down to the minute. ", "In the half-century following 1880, the railroad industry reshaped the American landscape and reoriented American thinking. . Gleaming trains carrying a fleet of officials set off from Sacramento and Omaha. Railroad Construction. What causes contributed to the tripling of the American population between 1860 ad 1910. Who was the engineer who directed the westward growth of the Union Pacific Railroad? Did most people relocate to cities immediately after the Industrial Revolution came to the United States in the early 1800s? The Union Pacific was largely financed by federal loans and land grants, but it overextended itself through its involvement in the Crédit Mobilier scandal, in which a few manipulators reaped enormous profits.After exposure of the scheme, which left the railroad badly in debt, the company went into receivership in 1893. Although it doubled progress, the increase in speed came with a terrible price, and it soon proved to be too dangerous. The Union Pacific was to commence working its way west from Omaha, Nebraska. To construct a road, the Union Pacific had to cross land occupied by American Indians. Its symbolic power riveted the attention of a nation. Constructed from the west by the Central Pacific and from the east by the Union Pacific, the two roads were linked in Utah in 1869 to great national fanfare. Union Pacific Train, late 1800s By William Francis Bailey in 1906 The country through which the Union Pacific Railroad was built was the hunting grounds of the Pawnee, Sioux, Arapaho, Crow, Blackfoot, Bannock, Snake and Shoshone, the first three on the plains and the others to the west. The UP, plagued by weather, flash flooding in Weber Canyon and a revolt by unpaid railroad workers at Piedmont (featuring the kidnapping of Durant), were late. Working under the direction of General Herman Haupt, he documented the construction efforts of army engineers, in particular their work on military railroads. What is a closed shop? The Central Pacific Railroad Company, building from California, hired Chinese migrants. The telegrapher signaled "Done." Dodge wrote, "It fell to my lot to be chief of this party.". It is a grand 'Anvil Chorus' that those sturdy sledges are playing across the plains. The allure of the railroad and the metropolitan corridor that evolved around it lasted until the ascendancy of the automobile, when the railroad suddenly vanished from national attention. He wrote to General Sherman, commander of the Military Division of the West, "We've got to clean the Indian out, or give up. Some 300 miles of main line track were built in 1865–66 over the flat prairies. During the winter of 1866, it took nearly half the CP work force of 9,000 men just to keep the track shoveled. The transcontinental railroad crossed western plains and mountains and linked the West Coast with the rail networks of the eastern United States. A light car, drawn by a single horse, gallops up to the front with its load of rails. These were the pick and shovel men, the teamsters, blacksmiths, masons, carpenters, mechanics and track layers. the UP would pay me well, but I'm afraid I might have trouble with Durant." Promontory Point is a bit of land that extends into the Great Salt Lake. 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