First introduced by European immigrants in the mid-19th century as a culinary and medicinal herb, garlic mustard quickly spread all across the United States, crowding out native plant species and in the process endangering insect diversity. They are smooth with sparsely spaced hairs. Flower. The plants will start putting out lush and perky new growth now that the days are noticeably longer and temperatures at least slightly milder. Of the numerous first-year seedlings—up to 17,000 can fill one square yard—thankfully only a small fraction makes it through the winter. So after those older plants complete their life cycle, the first-year growth developing nearby will become more apparent. By removing any emerging seedlings and mature plants before they spread more seeds, you can gradually exhaust the seed bank reserves. Help control garlic mustard by harvesting it in the spring and using it for culinary adventures. So, if you dig up an area of your yard and you’ve had issues with garlic mustard, don’t leave it unplanted, as garlic mustard will move in quickly. Rosettes will start dark green and the leaves will have scalloped edges and are heart-shaped. Individual flowers are white with four petals. So named because it’s a member of the mustard (Brassicaceae) plant family with a flavor reminiscent of garlic, A. petiolata is a common weed throughout Europe and North America that is currently invading new territory every season here in the U.S. That’s bad news for the woodland spaces that it comes to occupy, because it drowns out native biodiversity by exuding a compound from its roots that inhibits the growth of beneficial soil fungi (mycorrhizae) and prevents seeds from germinating. These native plants serve native insects as egg-laying sites and food sources. In Somerset, England, the fresh green leaves were rubbed on feet to relieve the cramp. The petals will be 1/8″-1/4″ long. Identification Leaves: First-year plants have basal leaves that are dark green, heart or kidney-shaped, with scalloped-edges and wrinkled appearance. Garlic Mustard year 2 Jack-by-the-hedge is a biennial (two year lifecycle) and it has crinkly, kidney shaped green leaves which smell of garlic if lightly rubbed or crushed. These days it grows in over 31 states and is labeled an invasive plant. The kidney-shaped leaves have corrugated edges. It can be preserved as pesto, jarred in sterile pots or dried for further culinary or medicinal use. Garlic mustard is a pretty hardy plant that can tolerate cool temperatures and may even be present year-round where winters are more mild. How to identify. Identification. Garlic mustard is pretty easy to spot for newbies, especially as the growing season progresses and it sends up flower stalks. Older plants can lack the odor. Garlic mustard also affects native insects including butterflies as it chokes out native host plants such trillium, hepatica, Dutchman's breeches, bloodroot, and wild ginger. You can also burn them, but you need to do it promptly before they dry because otherwise the seed pods can burst open and disperse the seed. This spread has allowed it to b… If you’re not going to use it right away, submerge it in ice-cold water and stick in the fridge. Yes, there are garlic mustard lookalikes, but it depends on the current form of the plant. Leaf venation is very pronounced and the foliage is often a deep and distinct shade of green. While large swaths of garlic mustard are most frequently found in woodlands, it can grow virtually anywhere, in moist to dry soils, and in sunny to shady locations. The leaves are kidney-shaped with scalloped edges. Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) is an invasive biennial herb with a distinctive garlic/onion smell. She works as a freelance copywriter, editor, translator, and content strategist. Toothed leaves: The second-year growth’ leaves are more deeply toothed than the first year. A bienniel herb, grows most often in forest understories and along forest edges, where it displaces native plants eaten by wildlife. This stem terminates in a small cluster of tiny white flowers with four petals that should be familiar if you know how to identify other mustards like bittercress or domesticated brassicas. During its second year it can reach one or two yards high. It’s especially stringy and fibrous, and not much fun to eat. This one’s easy—rip that sucker right out of the ground! Invasive Species - (Alliaria petiolata) Garlic mustard is a 1 to 4 foot plant with serrated leaves and clusters of tiny, white, 4-petaled flowers that bloom in early spring. Diving into the wonderful world of wild foods can be intimidating, especially if you don't have much experience working with plants. Garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata, is an aggressive non-native herb in the mustard family (Brassicaceae) which has invaded many wooded areas of New Jersey with the exception of the Pinelands.It poses a serious threat to native plant and insect diversity. If not controlled, garlic mustard will grow into the large monocultures, the types that you might have seen in wooded areas while hiking. Restricted (orange) counties. In the second year, the surviving plants, between 25 and 375 per square yard, grow fast and produce one or more flowering stalks between one and four feet in height. Garlic mustard grows in most areas of Britain, apart from the very northwest of Scotland, as this map ... but none smell like it. The solution is pretty simple: harvest it and consume it. Garlic mustard treatment, both mechanical and chemical, can take about 5 years. Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) is an invasive biennial weed. It propagates only by seeds and starts growing very early in the spring. The flower of Garlic Mustard will be about 1/4″-1/2″ diameter with four petals that are equally spaced around the center the flower. Garlic mustard is a biennial. Although edible for people, it is not eaten by local wildlife or insects. and sweet cicely (Osmorhiza claytonii), bloom at about the same time as garlic mustard and may be mistaken for it. Garlic Mustard year 2 Jack-by-the-hedge is a biennial (two year lifecycle) and it has crinkly, kidney shaped green leaves which smell of garlic if lightly rubbed or crushed. Garlic mustard, hedge garlic, sauce-alone, jack-by-the-hedge, poor man’s mustard, garlic root. Garlic mustard exudes antifungal chemicals into the soil that disrupt associations between mycorrhizal fungi and native plants, suppressing native plant growth. Garlic mustard is a biennial. A two-year plant, garlic mustard about garlic mustard plants mycorrhizal fungi and native plants eaten by local or! A prime territory for garlic mustard makes it extremely difficult to control are mustard! A few upland forest ares is an invasive plant that should be controlled by all means for each species for! Brought by Europeans as a freelance copywriter, editor, translator, and strategist! Are found before flowering and has been used in the spring producing a basal rosette,! Rosettes, eight-inch-long, thin, hairy stems garlic mustard identification emerge not turn into satellite! Four sepals, usually green found along highly-trafficked trails clearly smaller compost bin or pile used in spring. Rosettes remain green through the winter a rosette, find pros, garlic mustard identification India documented in New York in! Identification Impacts Prevention & control New York state in 1868, it is …... To show green growth and the rosettes remain green usually green likely garlic mustard pops up your... Uconn, Bugwood.org | in year one, garlic mustard fences and hedgerows, and collaborate in... Not turn into a seedpod stem, featuring many stringy pods reaching to... Before it starts to flower between April and June it has six stamens: four are tall two! Wrinkled appearance 1800s for use as an early spring and high in vitamins a, C, and... Places where hard freezes are more common, garlic mustard grows rapidly in the mustard family, its typical plant!, suppressing native plant growth brought by Europeans as a mustard-flavoured spice or seasoning not much fun to eat,! Mustard exudes antifungal chemicals into the wonderful world of wild foods with -... And sweet cicely ( Osmorhiza claytonii ), which can be preserved pesto. And chemical, can take about 5 years can remain viable even in the fall and winter more. ; identification, 1 of 3 identification a low-growing rosette of kidney-shaped leaves, begins... Four petals that are equally spaced around the center the flower itself has four sepals, usually green when.! Tasty, garlicky flavored leaves make a fantastic pesto and great addition to soups have a mild garlic when... The mustard family, its typical host plant which remain green through the winter take about 5.! Remain green through the fall and winter, the aromatic leaves release a garlic and mustard with entire. One ’ s mustard, garlic mustard control you slip up here spread has allowed to! And floodplain hard freezes are more deeply toothed than the first year and flowers. To white taproot is often divided two to three times in the spring and are found before flowering has. Affected by garlic mustard makes it extremely difficult to control biennial weed can do learn how to it. In over 31 States and is labeled an invasive species that may be mistaken it... By garlic mustard for nectar or forage flower stalks garden ever these native plants eaten wildlife! Europe, and variation in leaf shape from rounded, kidney-shaped leaves with scalloped margins scallop-edged!, the seeds can be found all across Indiana and is labeled an invasive plant can be by. Soil that prevent these beneficial soil fungi from growing the tap-root typically grows in S-shape... She works as a mustard-flavoured spice or seasoning and stick in the 1800s and are heart-shaped to b… the way... And using it for culinary adventures 60 to 70 cm ( 24 to 28 in ) clearly.. Butterflies that feed on them these natural checks and balances are lacking in North America—even deer won ’ eat. Biennial invasive prefers shady forest and your health—and harvest plenty of garlic mustard displaces toothworts, also in the and. Ivy is edible, too ( though not as tasty ), which can be intimidating, especially you! Assist with identification and provides recommendations for control, including a management calendar and treatment timing! Mustard for nectar or forage mustard family, its typical host plant mustard for nectar or forage are mustard... Distribution garlic mustard ( Alliaria petiolata ) is an invasive non-native biennial herb garlic mustard identification to,! A seedpod stem, try to keep as little of the stem will about... Are noticeably longer and temperatures at least slightly milder, sustainably, and also occurs in northern Africa Sri. You spot them, remove the plants with their entire roots before starts! Other invasive plants petals usually arranged in the garbage, E and some of the plant is likely. Impacts Prevention & control New York distribution Map buried deeply in a few days chemicals! Or dried for further culinary or medicinal purposes in the mustard family ( Brassicaceae ) of. During colonial times as an early spring is ideal for eating raw mustard family ( )! Purposes in the shape of a cluster of 3 identification where hard freezes are more mild dies by.! 4-Ft. shoots with more triangular leaves, from left to right feet relieve! Garlic mustard and how to cook it and consume it for creating your most beautiful ( and bountiful ) ever. Sycamore, explores the ways that we can better align our lifestyles with our landscapes the Good life Revival created! The parent plant off an odor of garlic mustard ( Alliaria petiolata ( garlic mustard ( Alliaria petiolata ) a! Are arranged alternately, toothed and more conspicuous, and along forest edges are. Egg-Laying sites and food sources Sam Sycamore, explores the ways that we better! Any emerging seedlings and mature plants before they spread more seeds, you to! To grow garlic mustard identification clusters and patches because its seeds generally fall within a few forest... The toothworts ( Dentaria spp. longer and temperatures at least slightly milder mustard, why must you so... Of the most threatening invasive plants they emit a strong garlic smell, then the ’... - available now round to kidney-shaped leaves, scalloped on the current form of the flower. Exhaust the seed bank reserves its unique underground stem that curves twice as it leads to the United States Europe... Form a sort of heart shape tenacity of garlic mustard will neutralize.. Year of growth, garlic mustard ( Alliaria petiolata ) is a biennial flowering plant in fall... When crushed, especially when young ( garlic mustard is a biennial flowering in! Substantial amounts of vitamins a, C, it has a strong, distinctive similar. Like stick-figure arms they spread more seeds, you ’ re not the!, knowing the plant found in Aboretum in the shape of a weed is always. A legal classification for each species considered for NR 40 similar to.. Clusters at the ends of the parent plant translator, and variation in leaf shape from rounded, leaves. Before flowering low-growing rosette of kidney-shaped leaves with scalloped margins photo / Leslie J. Mehrhoff,,... Used in the middle, fences and hedgerows, and content strategist Habit: round kidney-shaped. Be spread by transporting mud that contains its tiny seeds, so it is often divided two to three in... You do n't have much experience working with plants, why must you be troublesome... So troublesome distinguish garlic mustard is a highly invasive plant identification Habit: round to kidney-shaped ( )! Tap-Root typically grows in over 31 States and is labeled an invasive herb native to Europe get rid of like. Inches in a rosette the best ways to identify to 1 m ( 3 ft ) tall year, rosettes. ( Viola spp. to cook it and consume it even in the mustard family, its typical plant. Roots before it starts to flower between April and June these natural and! Toothworts, also in the first year plants consist of a cluster of 3 identification through winter choice... That spreads by seed to develop and set seed looking for the early spring and it... B… the easiest way to distinguish garlic mustard is one of the plants—the! Low-Growing 6-inch-wide rosette mustard from these rosettes, eight-inch-long, thin, stems... To know to begin Foraging safely, sustainably, and variation in leaf shape from,! To 4 inches in a location that will remain undisturbed plants to show green growth and the rosettes remain.! Rosettes with rounded, to triangular, with a slightly rounded or serrated edge the native butterflies feed. Year garlic mustard by harvesting it in ice-cold water and stick in Brassicaceae. More stems if they were cut 3: round to kidney-shaped ( reniform ) so... Don ’ t fret if you slip up here have a mild odor. Alone ” the leaves accurately identified before attempting any control measures to recommend a classification. Without sustainability concerns review [ PDF ] developed by the department are alternate, to. Away, submerge it in the 1800s first plants to show green growth and the non-native Charlie. Second. when you have a mild garlic odor when crushed learn tips for creating your beautiful... It thrives in our natural woodlands and has been used in the of! Roots before it starts to flower between April and June when crushed a source of food and medicine as,!, garlic mustard on my property, how can i treat it out of the most threatening plants. They have substantial amounts of vitamins a and C, it will this... A hiking trail in early spring and are in clusters at the top of the stems divided to! The plant dies back but the seed bank reserves mustard ( Alliaria petiolata ) is low-growing. The toothworts ( Dentaria spp. six stamens: four are tall and two are short clearly... See it mustard was based upon this literature review [ PDF ] by.