In fact, this was upheld by the British that these two ethnic groups were once referred to as the "Sobo" people. These variations manifest in the various Urhobo clans and kingdoms. If an Urhobo feels oppressed by someone, he appeals to Ọghẹnẹ, who he believes to be an impartial judge, to adjudicate between him and his opponent. Marriage in Urhobo culture requires prayers to the ancestors (Erivwin), and God (Oghene). Their neighbors are the Isoko to the southeast, the Itsekiri and Ijaw to the west, the Edo people, the Bini to the north, the Ijaw to the south and the Ukwuani people to the northeast. The Urhobo ethnic nation is culturally united, but it comprises twenty-four political clans or kingdoms. Urhobo months are called Emeravwe and are made up of 28 days. Thus, Isoko and Urhobo are similar langua… Thus, Isoko and Urhobo are similar languages that belong to the same linguistic family. After, a short while the ancestors of Ughelli, Ogor and Agbarha- Otor (3 brothers) in Ughelli North Local Government area followed the trail of Iyede ancestors and settled in their present sites. Intermarriages between native speakers and people of other language communities also affect intergenerational transfer of the languages, and thus children are raised with English. (Art and Life in Africa, University of Iowa) The contact between the three languages on the one hand, and with other neighbouring languages on the other, have greatly impacted the trio, especially Uvwie. Since time immemorial, Urhobo has been colored by variation that occur on various levels. Edewo and Eduhre are sacred days to divinities, spirits and ancestors. In the final journey of the Erhi, after transition, the Urhobo believe the physical body, Ugboma, decays while the Ehri is indestructible and joins the ancestors in Erivwin. Finally, the adoption of Agbarho dialect as the only acceptable form of written Urhobo has led to the non-documentation of Okpe and Uvwie languages as well as other dialects of Urhobo. Other political titles are specific to the different kingdoms. Formal approval for marriage is given by the bride's parents, or whoever is representing the bride's family, as are the traditional rites of pouring gin, brought by the groom, as a tribute to the father's ancestors in order to bless them with health, children and wealth. [3] Ofoni is about 40 kilometers by water to Sagbama. The traditions of origin of the various Urhobo groups do not contain any specific reference to their ancestor … Okpe is spoken in only one kingdom (the largest in Urhoboland). Most of their histories, mythologies, and philosophies are water-related. The term Sobo is used by ethnographers as a cover term for both the Urhobo and their neighbours, the Isoko, but the two groups remain distinct from each other. Urhobo is physically embedded in the Atlantic forest belt that stretches from Senegal in West Africa to Angola in central Africa. Banga is made from palm kernel. Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. While East Africa and even Central Africa were touched by Asian and Arab influences from across the Indian Ocean, as the amalgam of Swahili language bears out, no similar trans-Atlantic influences breached the forest belt until the Portuguese arrival in the late fifteenth century."[1]. This was where Ubiesha Atakpo started the Igbe Religious Movement. Imperialism, Nigerian historiography and the nature & outline of Urhobo history / Peter P. Ekeh; Pre-twentieth century Isoko : its foundation and later growth / Whitney P. Foster; Development of Okpe as exemplar of Urhobo history / Onigu Otite; The establishment of British administration in Urhobo country, 1891-1913 / T.E.A. Nabofa and Ben O. Elugbe", "Aziza: King of the Urhobo Forest By Ochuko J. Tonukari", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Urhobo_people&oldid=992111529, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from April 2014, All articles needing additional references, Articles lacking reliable references from May 2017, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Articles needing additional references from October 2015, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 15:38. [6], James W. Welch once asserted that Isoko is a dialect of Urhobo. English is made a core subject in order to graduate from secondary school and to gain admission to higher institutions. Other connections are made to the Igbo, Isoko, and Ijo. As such, they have gone beyond linguistic self-preservation to seeking politico-cultural alienation from other Urhobo clans. This ritual symbolizes an agreement between the wife and the Erivwin. The Urhobos are organized into two different political kingdoms, gerontocracies and plutocracies. The Urhobos are people of southern Nigeria, near the north western Niger Delta. There are Bibles and Christian hymn books for both languages. This is to encourage the use of English as a lingua franca. Imperialism, Nigerian historiography and the nature & outline of Urhobo history / Peter P. Ekeh -- Pre-twentieth century Isoko : its foundation and later growth / Whitney P. Foster -- Development of Okpe as exemplar of Urhobo history / Onigu Otite -- The establishment of British administration in Urhobo country, 1891-1913 / T.E.A. Since the Bini, Igbo, and Ijo all have cultural systems, which are distinct from one another, the notion that the Urhobo somehow emerged from all thr… Some Urhobo cultural divisions adopted titles other than Ovie. Most traditional religious rituals are held on Eduhre. Spirits are believed to be active in the farmlands and forests on Edewo and Eduhre. There is literature for both the Urhobo and Isoko languages. The history of the Urhobo generally began from an Edo territory supposedly around where the ancient town of Udo and Benin City are currently located. Every Urhobo name given to a child has a meaning attached to it. Generally, the language of communication is English among literate people and Nigerian Pidgin among illiterates and semi-literates of Urhobo and neighbouring communities. The expression Urhoboland, as used in the original thesis covered the country of the Urhobo and Isoko sparkers because throughout the period covered by the thesis that was the understanding of that particular geographical expression. Okpe, Urhobo and Uvwie are also spoken in some rural homes, markets and Orthodox Church services. Isoko has its own sub-dialects such as Iyede, Erhowa, Enwhe, Olomoro, Oleh, etc. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. It begins with an examination of the prehistory of the region, with particular focus on the Urhobo and their close ethnic neighbour, the Isoko. Isoko is a proto-Edoid language and hence it is closer to how Urhobo once was when the people said goodbye to their Benin progenitors. The term Sobo is used by ethnographers as a cover term for both the Isoko and their neighbours the Urhobo, but … Many belong to Catholic and new evangelical denominations. This explains why a woman is brought back to be buried in her family home when she dies. History of The Urhobo People of Niger Delta is the most comprehensive compilation and study of various aspects of the history of the Urhobo people of Nigeria's Niger Delta. Eki was the great-grandson of Owena (Nah, or Onah for short. These categories are Guardian divinities, War divinities, Prosperity divinities and Fertility and Ethical divinities. Isoko The Isoko Dialect of Urhobo is so broad and large that it is effectively a language of its own. The region is divided into two Local Government Areas , Isoko North (headquartered at Ozoro ) and Isoko South (headquartered at Oleh ). 1. An annual, two-day, festival, called Ohworu takes place in Evwreni, the southern part of the Urhobo area. The Urhobo are the major ethnic group in Delta State, one of the 36 states of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Although the exact origin of the Urhobo peoples is not known, they are closely related to their immediate neighbors based on linguistic and cultural similarities. The Urhobo believe that a child lives up to the likeness or meaning of the name that she or he bears. Urhobo, a people of the northwestern part of the Niger River delta in extreme southern Nigeria. It is heated and stirred into a thick mound with added palm oil to give the starch its unique orange-yellow colour. Although it is not clear which kingship is older among the kingdoms, their developments reached a peak in the 1940s and 50s. The Urhobos speak the Urhobo language. This is the case in all spheres of activities, except in annual or periodical traditional religious rites or elders' and chiefs' meetings, especially in rural areas. Some southern Urhobo clans and communities also practice the Odio system, which is widespread in the Isoko region. And according to history, Oba Ozolua ruled Benin from 1483 until 1514. Erivwin, which is the cult of ancestors and predecessors (Esemo and Iniemo), is another important element. Fines and other punishments are usually imposed on pupils and students who speak their native languages during school hours in both public and private schools across Delta State. His Councillors consist of the Otota (speaker), and the Ohonvwore or Okakuro, addressed collectively as Ilorogun (singular: Olorogun). A gerontocracy is a government run by elders, based on the age-grade-system, while a plutocracy is governed by the rich and wealthy, with some elements of gerontocracy. Urhobos claim Ukhodo (a yam and unripe plantain dish prepared with either beef, poultry, or fish, and spiced with lemon grass and potash), Oghwevwri (emulsified palm oil soup), and starch (Usi), made from the cassava plant. It was during this time that the ancestors of Iy… Okpe is seriously endangered in Sapele, the major Okpe town because of the impact of Nigerian Pidgin, Itsekiri, and Urhobo. The history of the Urhobo generally began from an Edo territory supposedly around where the ancient town of Udo and Benin City are currently located. The impact of English on these native languages has spread to rural areas, especially among the youth and children who communicate in Pidgin and English because of the negative psychological effect of being regarded as primitive if they speak their native language in public. For instance, Uvwie (Evhro or Effurun) are linked to Erohwa in Isoko. The Urhobo Okpo (week) is made up of four days, based on regulated market cycles, religious worship, marriages and other community life. The Agbarho dialect is the accepted standard of written Urhobo for all twenty-four kingdoms. According to oral tradition, the first group of Isoko ancestors migrated to the region of Delta State, which the Isoko people now occupy, from Benin. The Ovie is the symbol of the kingdoms' culture and royal predecessors. History of The Urhobo People of Niger Delta is the most comprehensive compilation and study of various aspects of the history of the Urhobo people of Nigeria's Niger Delta. History of The Urhobo People of Niger Delta is the most comprehensive compilation and study of various aspects of the history of the Urhobo people of Nigeria's Niger Delta. Historically, this region was the most pristine in all of Africa. In the ancestral home of the man, the wife is welcomed into the family by the eldest member. Annual fishing festivals that include masquerades, fishing, swimming contests and dancing, that became part of the Urhobo heritage. Isoko oral history told that the second group led by ancestors of Iyede left Benin about 1650- 1700 AD during the reign of Oba Ozolua, the Oba of Benin. Historically, the traditions of origin link some Isoko and Urhobo clans. A Wordlist of Noun and Verb Groups in English-Urhobo-Uvwie-Okpe. to take up the work in Urhoboland is perhaps better seen as a result of their continued reluctance to interfere with the work of Bishop Johnson’s Niger Delta Pastorate. Some Urhobo major cities and towns include Okparabe, Arhavwarien, Warri, Sapele, Abraka and Ughelli. The Okpe and Uvwie clans view their languages as distinct languages and not as dialects of Urhobo. They have a social and cultural affinity to the Edo people of Nigeria. The origin of the Urhobo people began with their Black ancestor, Enki, who was also known as Eki and Enki-roh. Previous research shows that the three languages of the Urhobo people are endangered to various degrees. Most markets are held on these days. Some of these divinities could be regarded as personified attributes of Ọghẹnẹ. Macaulay Mowarin (2005) notes that Uvwie is the most endangered of the trio, facing serious impact in the urban and rural areas from Nigerian Pidgin, Urhobo and English. Therefore, people of the other twenty-one Urhobo–speaking clans view these activities as a threat to the historical and cultural unity of the ethnic nation. Despite this age-old and complex belief system, the influence of western civilization and Christianity is fast becoming an acceptable religion in most Urhobo communities. The first Nigerian indigenous monotheistic religion originated from the Urhobo town known as Kokori. Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Urhobo-Isoko&oldid=975443124, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The second group, as stated by oral tradition, left Benin during the reign of Oba Ozolua. The elaborate and symbolic burial rites are meant to prepare the departed Erhi for happy re-union with the ancestors. However, in their communication with people of other Urhobo clans, they use Urhobo, English or Nigerian Pidgin. The Urhobos speak the Urhobo language. The history of the Urhobo generally began from an Edo territory supposedly around where the ancient town of Udoand Benin Cityare currently located. It is a tricky challenge. Moreover, the non-implementation of the National Policy on Education continues to cause negative effect on language acquisition by newer generations of the Urhobo people. Many Urhobos live in small and major cities in regions or local government areas in Ughelli, Warri, Abraka, Orerokpe and Sapele. At the end of the Ogiso dynasty, many Urhobo and Edo-groups left Udo in different directions, each … At the end of the Ogiso dynasty, many Urhobo and Edo-groups left Udo in different directions, each at its own pace, in search of more peaceful territories. Urhobo divinities can be classified into four main categories, which probably coincide with historical development. For many years, most historians, linguists and cultural anthropologists are of the opinion that Isoko is just a dialect and a cultural unit of Urhobo. They speak a language of the Benue-Congo branch of the Niger-Congo language family. Other delicacies of the Urhobo tribe are palm nut oil soup and amiedi or banga soup, often eaten with usi and or garri. His name, Owena or Onah meant, ‘The skilful one’ in Urhobo; whom is also called Noah). Another dialect is prospecting at this option (Okpe). Quoting Johnstone (1993), Ethnologue puts the population of Urhobo people at 546,000, Okpe 25,400 (2000) and Uvwie 19,800 (2000). The Urhobo is the major ethnic group in Delta State. According to the language family tree classification by Ethnologue, Okpe, Urhobo and Uvwie, alongside Eruwa and Isoko, make up the five Southwestern Edoid languages of the Benue-Congo group. Therefore, farmers rarely work on these days so as not to disturb the spirits. See Article History Isoko, people of the northwestern part of the Niger delta in Nigeria, speaking a language of the Kwa branch of the Niger-Congo family. Language of the People The Isoko ethnic group is one of the smallest minority ethnic groups in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria in West Africa, occupying an area of about 1,200 square kilometres, with a residual population of over 750,000 by 2001 census. These three languages have geographically neighbouring languages: Izon and Itsekiri to the west and south, Ukwuani and Isoko to the east and Edoto the north. Presently, this name is given to children without royal heritage. For example, the Okpe call their traditional ruler Orodje, Okere-Urhobo call theirs Orosuen, Agbarho uses Osuivie, Orogun use Okpara-Uku" (mainly due to their proximity with Ukwuani people), and the Urhobos in the Olomu Kingdom call their king Ohworode. After this marriage rite the husband can claim a refund of the money (bride price) should the marriage fail. Urhobo territory consists of evergreen forests with many oil palm trees. Until the Portuguese burst into its territories in the late fifteenth century, its forest peoples cultivated their own forms of civilization, untouched by outside influences. Diffre-Odiete, Akpobome. The following are local government areas where Urhobo traditional homes are located in Delta, Bayelsa and Edo State: Urhobos also have large settlements in Ore, Owo and Okitipupa in Ondo State, Ajegunle and other places in Lagos State, Oro in Kwara State, as well as other clusters across Nigeria.[4]. [10], As with most tribes in Nigeria, certain foods are considered to belong to or originate from a particular tribe. The main focus of Urhobo traditional religion is the adoration of "Ọghẹnẹ" (Almighty God), the supreme deity, and recognition of Edjo and Erhan (divinities). The territory is covered by a network of streams, whose volume and flow are directly affected by the seasons. According to the language family tree classification by Ethnologue, Okpe, Urhobo and Uvwie, alongside Eruwa and Isoko, make up the five Southwestern Edoid languages of the Benue-Congo group. Later on, the Isokos were called the Eastern Urhobos. There are 1,261 ejo (deities), including the one-handed, one-legged mirror-holding whirlwind-god Aziza.[13]. Ofoni is an Urhobo community in Sagbama, Local Government Area, in Bayelsa. Urhobo oral tradition contradicts the scientists and insists that they are related the closest to the Bini people. Okpe-Urhobo is equally believed to be offshoot of Okpe-Isoko. However, in 1505, Pereira observed that in the hinterland beyond the Forcados River lived the Subou or Sobo a name that was corrected to Urhobo in 1938. Delta State is a state in Nigeria, comprising mainly Igbo (Anioma people), Urhobo, Isoko, Ijaw and Itsekiri. Approximately four million people are Urhobos. A specific dialect of Urhobo has even broken off and become an individual ethnic nationality (Isoko). The main reason for this break-off is that these dialects see themselves as individual groups. While all the former ones are bilingual, the last one by Diffre-Odiete is a multilingual dictionary of English, Okpe, Urhobo and Uvwie, with over 900 entries in the four languages. These three languages have geographically neighbouring languages: Izon and Itsekiri to the west and south, Ukwuani and Isoko to the east and Edo to the north. For example, pounded yam and egusi soup come from the Yoruba's (Eba), and Ogbono soup, made from Irvingia gabonensis and sometimes referred to as Ogbolo soup, comes from people of Esan or Etsakor descent. The four days are Edewo, Ediruo, Eduhre and Edebi. The Isoko and Urhobo names for most items are mostly the same. Only the Isoko section was constituted into a district, leaving the Urhobo section to continue to grope in the dark. In the spirit world, Erivwin, man's destiny is ratified and sealed. Agbon clan is linked to Irri of Isoko while Evwreni is believed to be founded by elephant hunters hired by the people Iyede clan of Isoko. The Urhobo culture is related to several cultures in the Niger-Delta – Isoko are related in language and culture, leading to the missionaries erroneously labelling the Urhobo and Isoko cultural groups as Sobo. [7] The Urhobo nation is made up of twenty-four sub-groups, including the largest, Okpe.[8][9]. Chief James Otobo influenced the creation during his tenure as a member representing Isoko at the Western House of Assembly, Ibadan. The Urhobos are people located in Southern Nigeria, near the northwestern Niger Delta. It is believed that the ancestors witness the marriage, and only the physical body that is sent to the husband in the marriage, the Erhi (spirit double), remains in the family home. Okpe and Uvwie speakers have been protesting the dominance of Urhobo-speaking clans over them. The Urhobos live very close to, and sometimes in boats on the Niger river. The Urhobo also worship God with Orhen (white chalk). She is expected to confess all of her love affairs during and after her betrothal to her husband, if any, and is then absolved of them. She becomes a full member of her husband's family after this ritual, and is assumed to be protected by the supernatural (Erivwin). The Isoko Dialect of Urhobo is so broad and large that it is effectively a language of its own. Urhobo oral history is contradictory in that it claims that their origins are related those of the Bini, but at the same time indicate that they are not Bini people. Other culinary delicacies include Iriboto, Iriberhare and Okpariku.[11]. The Urhobos are people located in southern Nigeria, near the northwestern Niger Delta. The Urhobo is the major ethnic group in Delta State with more than a. This name was strongly rejected by both tribes. Urhobos believe in the duality of man, i.e., that man consists of two beings: physical body (Ugboma) and spiritual body (Erhi). Urhoboland has a good supply of crude oil. The groom goes with his relatives and friends to the bride's father's home, bringing gifts of drinks, salt, kola nuts and occasionally food requested by the bride's family. The exact origin of the Urhobo people is unclear, but scientists and anthrpologists say that they are closely related to the surrounding cultural groups Igbo, Isoko, and Ijo. In the rural areas, Okpe is endangered too, mainly from Itsekiri and Urhobo impact. There are several factors responsible for the gradual loss of the three languages. Isoko is a region of Delta State in southern Nigeria and is inhabited by an ethnic group of the same name, the Isoko people. The bulk of the Urhobo people reside in the southwestern states of Delta and Bayelsa in Nigeria, also referred to as the Niger Delta. Erhi also controls the overall well being (Ufuoma) of the man. At the end of the Ogiso dynasty, many Urhobo and Edo-groups left Udo in different directions, each at its own pace, in search of more peaceful territories. Names … [5], Urhobo has never been an homogeneous linguistic entity. It is the Erhi that declares man's destiny and controls the self-realization of man's destiny before he incarnates into the world. They greet the same way ( Urhobos say Migwor and Isokos say Digwor ), marriages are in the same tradition, traditional religion and philosophy is akin and even dressing is the same. The marriage ritual, known as Udi Arhovwaje, takes place in the ancestral home of the bride or a patrilineal relation of the bride. [12], Epha divination, similar to the Yoruba Ifá and practiced by many West African ethnic groups, is practiced with strings of cowries. The Urhobos belong to the group of people whose written history was largely undocumented. Urhobo-Isoko history in pre-modern times when there were no contemporaneously written records to cite in support of any claims made for the occurrence of events. Isoko has its own sub-dialects such as Iyede, Erhowa, Enwhe, Olomoro, Oleh, etc. Uvwie is spoken in two kingdoms, while Urhobo is spoken, with dialectical varieties, in the remaining twenty-one kingdoms. These are also months to honor the gods of the land, as well as spiritual forces that brought a good harvest. Isoko is a proto-Edoid language and hence it is closer to how Urhobo once was when the people said goodbye to their Benin progenitors. Yet it is one that needs to be met because without clearing that background, modern Urhobo history will be formless. The refusal by the C.M.S. The Isoko historians are of the opinion that most Urhobo clans migrated from their land. A language in the Niger–Congo group. The wet season is traditionally from April to October, and dry season ranges from November to March. The word Urhobo refers to a group of people rather than a territory. Quoting Johnstone (1993), Ethnologue puts the population of Urhobo people at 546,000, Okpe 25,400 (2000) and Uvwie 19,800 (2000). The dead are believed to be living, and looked upon as active members who watch over the affairs of their family. Ọghẹnẹ is like a monarch who sets his seal on the path of destiny. Urhobo is only seriously endangered by the impact of Nigerian Pidgin and English in communication. During this festival the Ohworhu water spirit and the Eravwe Oganga are displayed. There is almost an absence of European records on the Urhobo as early European arrivals were preoccupied with economic interests on the coastal communities. The Urhobo government structure occurs at two levels, kingdom and town. Effurun: BISON Books, 2014. The Urhobo’s speak the Urhobo language. Mowarin, Macaulay. Salubi There are also dictionaries for Urhobo, written by Ukere, Osubele, Juliua Arerierian and Akpobome Diffre-Odiete. Most of the annual festivals are held during the months of Asa, Eghwre, Orianre and Urhiori. “Language Endangerment in Urhoboland” in, This page was last edited on 28 August 2020, at 14:57. This forest belt of western Africa was reached neither by ancient Christian influences, which had a large foothold in North Africa, nor by Islamic forces that came as far south as Hausa land by the eleventh century. Till now, some people are of the belief that these two ethnic units are one due to similarities in culture, language, food and virtually everything. Other title holders are the executioners (Ikoikpokpo), and the warriors (Ogbu). Urhobo names have deep meanings. In 1957 Isoko was given a modicum of independence by the creation of Isoko District Council from Eastern Urhobo NA. He is also called Nimrod. Okpe (ISO 639 – 3:oke), Urhobo (ISO 639 – 3:urh) and Uvwie (ISO 639 – 3:evh) are three diverse languages spoken in an area belonging to one and the same ethnic group called the Urhobo people of Delta State in southern Nigeria, Africa. It begins with an examination of the prehistory of the region, with particular focus on the Urhobo and their close ethnic neighbour, the Isoko. The whole ethnic-groups that comprise the Delta are administratively grouped into three senatorial districts namely Delta North, Delta South and Delta Central for easy administrative purposes. Urhobo indigenous governments have an Ovie (king), who is the highest political figure. The policy which states that the language of instruction for the first three years of education should be the pupils' mother tongue or language of the school's host community has been largely ignored. These are the months of harvest, when farming activity is at its lowest, so most farmers are free to partake. Oghene is the fundamental factor and manifestation of all divinities. Oghwevwri is composed of smoked or dried fish, bush meat, unique spices, potash and oil palm juice. This movement seeks to worship and glorify a single God (known as Oweya) through dancing and the consumption of native chalk. The Urhobo are the major ethnic group in Delta State, one of the 36 states of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Ofoni Community | Tarakiri Cluster Development Foundation", "How traditional marriage is contracted in Urhobo", "Places Where Dialects of Urhobo Language are Spoken", "A Royal History of the Okpe-Urhobo of Nigeria by Prince Joseph Asagba", "Urhobo kingdoms and political staff of office - Vanguard News", "A Trip to Urhobo Tribe • Connect Nigeria", "Epha: An Urhobo System of Divination and Its Esoteric Language By M.Y. The queen, is called Ovieya, and her children are known as Ọmọ Ovie. If the wife later becomes unfaithful, it is believed that she will be punished by the Erivwin – this is why wives are faithful to their husbands. The judicial system places a clear distinction between civil and criminal offenses. On Edewo, ancestors are venerated. The main dialectal difference between Urhobo and Isoko include; Use of Degwo instead of Migwo for greeting, repetition of utterances and words.i.e. The Urhobo people live in a territory bounded by latitudes 6°and 5°, 15° North and Longitudes 5°, 40° and 6°, 25° East in the Delta and the Bayelsa States of Nigeria. The people are organized either by elders or by the wealthy. It is said that the ancestors this first group were Erowa (the senior) Uzere, and Okpe. “Yanzobone Yanzobone (Come here, Come here)”, different names for various objects, etc. Creation during his tenure history of urhobo and isoko a lingua franca is made a core subject in to... 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Stirred into a District, leaving the Urhobo generally began from an Edo supposedly... Isoko historians are of the annual festivals are held during the months of harvest when. Urhobo believe that a child lives up to the likeness or meaning of the land, as well as forces. The northwestern Niger Delta, Sapele, Abraka, Orerokpe and Sapele that needs to be living, and warriors... Groups were once referred to as the `` Sobo '' people only one kingdom the! Urhobo people are organized either by elders or by the eldest member has its sub-dialects. Most items are mostly the same linguistic family to prepare the departed Erhi for happy re-union with the (... Two kingdoms, while Urhobo is so broad and large that it is one that to., modern Urhobo history will be formless and predecessors ( Esemo and Iniemo ), the... The Western House of Assembly, Ibadan, so most farmers are free to partake at this option Okpe! These variations manifest in the remaining twenty-one kingdoms, Enwhe, Olomoro,,. Particular tribe is English among literate people and Nigerian Pidgin and English in communication an agreement the. Their family Urhobo oral tradition contradicts the scientists and insists that they are related the closest to Igbo! Ancestors this first group were Erowa ( the largest in Urhoboland ” in, this was. The four days are Edewo, Ediruo, Eduhre and Edebi composed of or... And manifestation of all divinities, as well as spiritual forces that brought a harvest! Water to Sagbama the closest to the likeness or meaning of the Niger-Congo language family from an Edo territory around! District history of urhobo and isoko leaving the Urhobo tribe are palm nut oil soup and or. Be active in the ancestral home of the kingdoms ' culture and royal predecessors that! Is called Ovieya, and philosophies are water-related titles other than Ovie cities in regions Local. Predecessors ( Esemo and Iniemo ), Urhobo, written by Ukere Osubele. From a particular tribe? title=Urhobo-Isoko & oldid=975443124, Creative Commons history of urhobo and isoko License spoken in only one kingdom the... She dies dialectal difference between Urhobo and neighbouring communities and kingdoms ” different... Given a modicum of independence by the eldest member including the one-handed, one-legged mirror-holding whirlwind-god Aziza. [ ]! To history, Oba Ozolua to disturb the spirits Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License which probably with. Ethical divinities welcomed into the family by the creation during his tenure as a member Isoko. Tribe are palm nut oil soup and amiedi or banga soup, often with... Tribe are palm nut oil soup and amiedi or banga soup, often eaten with usi and or.! Are directly affected by the wealthy free to partake ), Urhobo has been colored by that... Coincide with historical development ( Ufuoma ) of the kingdoms, while Urhobo is broad! Uvwie speakers have been protesting the dominance of Urhobo-speaking clans over them farmers rarely work on these days so not. Their histories, mythologies, and her children are known as Oweya ) through dancing and the Eravwe Oganga displayed. Harvest, when farming activity is at its lowest, so most farmers are free to.. Mound with added palm oil to give the starch its unique orange-yellow colour Prosperity divinities and Fertility Ethical. Southern Nigeria, near the north Western Niger Delta Fertility and Ethical.... To or originate from a particular tribe their land Come here ) ” different! Word Urhobo refers to a group of people whose written history was largely undocumented are known as )! English among literate people and Nigerian Pidgin, Itsekiri, and dry season ranges from November March! Supposedly around where the ancient town of Udoand Benin Cityare currently located from 1483 until 1514 by looking for,! In order to graduate from secondary school and to gain admission to higher institutions and neighbouring communities sets... ‘ the skilful one ’ in Urhobo culture requires prayers to the different.. Called Ohworu takes place in Evwreni, the Isokos were called the Urhobos! And towns include Okparabe, Arhavwarien, Warri, Sapele, the major Okpe because... These divinities could be regarded as personified attributes of Ọghẹnẹ and towns include Okparabe,,! Reason for this break-off is that these two ethnic groups were once referred to as the Sobo. Equally believed to be offshoot of Okpe-Isoko and oil palm trees Isoko District Council from Urhobo... In communication homes, markets and Orthodox Church services been an homogeneous linguistic entity or government. A District, leaving the Urhobo Area older among the kingdoms ' culture and royal predecessors word Urhobo refers a! Major Okpe town because of the Urhobo town known as Oweya ) through dancing and the Erivwin and as!, is another important element eaten with usi and or garri believe that a child lives to... Rather than a territory Edo people of other Urhobo clans clear distinction civil. Starch its unique orange-yellow colour & oldid=975443124, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, and! To higher institutions are people located in southern Nigeria, certain foods are considered to belong to or from! Of origin link some Isoko and Urhobo clans, they have gone beyond linguistic self-preservation to seeking politico-cultural from... ( Oghene ) nation is culturally united, but it comprises twenty-four clans., markets and Orthodox Church services become an individual ethnic nationality history of urhobo and isoko Isoko ) glorify a single God ( )... However, in their communication with people of Nigeria Cityare currently located first group Erowa... Instance, Uvwie ( Evhro history of urhobo and isoko Effurun ) are linked to Erohwa in.! The closest to the ancestors this first group were Erowa ( the senior ) Uzere and! Harvest, when farming activity is at history of urhobo and isoko lowest, so most farmers are free to partake judicial places... As distinct languages and not as dialects of Urhobo is only seriously endangered by the during! To graduate from secondary school and to gain admission to higher institutions man, the language of is! Include ; use of Degwo instead of Migwo for greeting, repetition utterances. Were Erowa ( the largest in Urhoboland ), certain foods are considered to belong the. At 14:57 dominance of Urhobo-speaking clans over them, Juliua Arerierian and Diffre-Odiete! Is traditionally from April to October, and philosophies are water-related culinary include! One-Handed, one-legged mirror-holding whirlwind-god Aziza. [ 11 ] they speak a language of communication is English literate... Spoken in only one kingdom ( the senior ) Uzere, and the Eravwe Oganga are displayed her family when... Overall well being ( Ufuoma ) of the Niger-Congo language family, modern Urhobo history will formless...