It was argued that the popular use of the term, ‘community-acquired pneumonia’ does little to advance our understanding of the condition. ICD-10 Version. Ventilator associated pneumonia. Rasanen J, Gavriely N. Childhood pneumonia screener: a concept. Even the recent modifications to the WHO classification of childhood pneumonia fail to address the problems of poor diagnostic specificity where it is not possible to reliably differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial pneumonia, or to always differentiate pneumonia from malaria, dehydration or acute central nervous system disorders. Community-acquired pneumonia is a lung infection that occurs in noninstitutionalized people, typically involving organisms such as viruses, Streptococcus pneumoniae, … Combining forms meaning the lungs, air or gas, respiration, or pneumonia. A treatise on the diseases of the chest and on mediate auscultation. Atypical pneumonias diffusely affect lung tissues rather than anatomical lobes or lobules. It is clear that all of the systems of classification have significant deficiencies, primarily relating to an inability to determine the aetiology of cases of pneumonia, and substantial heterogeneity of aetiology, phenotype and pathology. 2004;10:811–3. The lungs reaction to these foreign microbes is to cause an inflammatory response causing the bronchioles and alveoli to fill with fluid and become solid. It is most serious for infants and young children, people older than age 65, … In relation to pneumonia research, the internal validity of studies will be improved if participants are more homogenous with respect to factors associated with the outcome. , pneumon- , pneumono-. Article  Vaccine probe studies allow classifications of pneumonia which are impossible by any other means. Which is the correct breakdown of the medical term blepharopyorrhea into its component parts? Pneumonias are categorized by site and cause. Madhi SA, Klugman KP, Vaccine Trialist Group. PubMed  The magnitude of this problem is most evident in the common inability to identify the infectious organism(s) causing lung infection, necessitating empiric antibiotic therapy. However, taken to an extreme, the pursuit of representativeness can defeat the goal of identifying causal biological relations. Harrison’s textbook describes the pathologic demarcation between lobar and bronchopneumonia but concludes that the classification of pneumonia is best based upon the causative microorganism. British Journal of Radiology. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2013. In: Translated from the 3rd French ed. Modern epidemiology. PMID:17467514, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60670-9. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Community-acquired pneumonia in children: Clinical features and diagnosis. Most pneumonia occurs when a breakdown in your body's natural defenses allows germs to invade and multiply within your lungs. California Privacy Statement, III. Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. Myasthenia refers to a loss of muscle strength, as in myasthenia gravis. The dangers of poor classification of pneumonia are widespread empiric antibiotic therapy and heterogeneous groups in research, which have a tendency to influence the construction of research questions and studies. If a specific diagnosis could be made, specific therapy could be provided which would be of similar efficacy to empiric wide spectrum therapy [13] and avoid millions of prescriptions of broad-spectrum antibiotics and the associated risks of antibiotic resistance. 2013;62:9. Lack of energy and strength. Pneumonia: Inflammation of one or both lungs, with dense areas of lung inflammation. Manual of the international list of causes of death: based on the fourth decenial revision by the International Commission, Paris, October 16 to 19, 1929. The question of generalising study results to wider populations is a separate consideration. 2010;83:998. 25th ed. pneumonia. To a large extent, generalisation is a question of whether the factors that distinguish populations from the study group somehow modify the effect in question. Article  Like hospital-acquired pneumonia, health care-acquired pneumonia can be caused by bacteria that are more resistant to antibiotics. In a qualitative sense, the problem may be distilled to a lack of homogeneity in clinical and pathological phenotypes under investigation. Community-acquired pneumonia in children: Outpatient treatment. The first usage commonly describes the accidental ingestion of a fluid or solid into the trachea (windpipe) and lungs. Aspiration pneumonia medical term breakdown nursing... What Is The Definition Of Pneumonia, bilateral Medical School... pneumonia meaning in tamil is an infection of the lungs that is caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Accessed 11 Dec 2015. Rylance J, Waitt P. Pneumonia severity scores in resource poor settings. In the interim, better ways to determine the aetiology of pneumonia need to be sought, and researchers should consider the benefits of using methods of classification to provide more homogeneous groups, the study of which is likely to provide clearer answers to research questions. Privacy Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Similarly, misclassification of pneumonia limits high quality epidemiological and clinical research. Comparison between pathogen directed antibiotic treatment and empirical broad spectrum antibiotic treatment in patients with community acquired pneumonia: a prospective randomised study. Pneumonia is an infection of the lower respiratory tract, involving the pulmonary parenchyma. Pneumonia A variety of organisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, can cause pneumonia.Pneumonia can range in seriousness from mild to life-threatening. Accessed 3 Oct 2004. Accessed April 18, 2016. Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. Wood; 1838. Accessed April 15, 2016. The second describes the extraction of fluid from the body, either for the purpose of treatment or diagnosis. Asthenia is from the Greek asthenes, from a- (without) + sthenos (strength). The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. In adults, bacteria are the most common cause of pneumonia. Validity in Epidemiologic Studies, Ch 9. The signs and symptoms of pneumonia vary from mild to severe, depending on factors such as the type of germ causing the infection, and your age and overall health. The ICD-10 classification of diseases has removed some of the historical descriptive terms and ‘pneumonia’ is listed as the primary term in seven codes (J12–18) but it is also a descriptive term in seven other codes relevant to specific infectious and non-infectious aetiologies, times of life and complications of diseases and procedures [10]. An implication of point two is that research should define questions that can be answered in a valid manner. It states that pneumonia is not a single disease but a group of specific infections, each with a different epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation and clinical course [11]. Most pneumonia occurs when a breakdown in your body's natural defenses allows germs to invade and multiply within your lungs. McNally LM, Jeena PM, Gajee K, Thula SA, Sturm AW, Cassol S, et al. Schauner S, et al. by J. Forbes, with notes of Prof. Andral from the 4th ed. A working definition and approach to classification is proposed to guide future research and, to a lesser extent, clinical care. Pneumonia is a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection of the lungs that causes the air sacs, or alveoli, of the lungs to fill up with fluid or pus. MEDICAL TERM LAY TERMINOLOGY abdomen belly ablation remove Absorb Take up fluids, take in ... hemolysis breakdown in red blood cells heparin lock ... nosocomial pneumonia pneumonia acquired in the hospital NG tube (nasogastric) An ensuing discussion between some of the Pneumonia Editorial Board members reflected on the lack of clarity around the definition and classification of pneumonia in the published papers and in the field of pneumonia research. Part of World Health Organisation website; Available from http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/child-pneumonia-treatment/en/. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. 2012;344:e3325. 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