Margaret Smith writes in her book Al-Ghazali: The Mystic (London 1944): “There can be no doubt that al-Ghazali’s works would be among the first to attract the attention of these European scholars” (page 220). He died in 1128 C.E. His contributions played a role in the revival of the Islamic faith as taught by the prophet Muhammad before him, despite the challenges presented by philosophy during his time. [28] He was a Muslim scholar, law specialist, rationalist, and spiritualist of Persian descent. He studied fiqh in his own town, then he moved to Nisapur in the company of a group of students. [29] He was born in Tabaran, a town in the district of Tus, Khorasan (now part of Iran),[28] not long after Seljuk captured Baghdad from the Shia Buyid and established Sunni Caliphate under a commission from the Abbasid Dynasty in 1055 AD. [19] This means that in essence time stretches infinitely both into the future and into the past, which therefore proves that God did not create the universe at one specific point in time. Role of Mujaheda. Hunt Janin, The Pursuit of Learning in the Islamic World 610-2003, p 83. The longest letter is the response to objections raised against some of his statements in Mishkat al-Anwar (The Niche of Light) and al-Munqidh min al-dalal (Rescuer from Error). (Sarajevo: El Kalem, 1996), 159-162. Imam Ghazali has given the details of each and everything thing that a man does in his life from the offering of eating, clothing to marriage and friendship. Sadeq A.M., Ghazali A. [47] However, the Prophet explicitly states that there must be a middle ground for man, in order to practice the tenets of Islam faithfully . (Sarajevo: El Kalem, 1996), 150. He was a Muslim scholar, law specialist, rationalist, and spiritualist of Persian descent. He believed himself to be more mystical or religious than he was philosophical however, he is more widely regarded by some scholars as a leading figure of Islamic philosophy and thought. Economic Thought of Al Ghazali (Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre King Abdulaziz Univesity, 1997), 18. 4, 119. 2, 108. Abu Hamid Ghazali's contribution to Islamic Ethics Background Al-Ghazali Epistomology: rationalism vs. traditionalism Although Al-Ghazali is a traditionalist who holds to theistic subjectivism, his position is slightly less subjectivist than his predecessors. 8 Ghazanfar Mohammad, Islahi Abdul Azim. Put simply, no other Muslim during his time held the authority he did when it came to matters of Islam. Al-Ghazali's major contribution lies in religion, philosophy and Sufism. Al-Ghazali (full name أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الطوسي الغزالي, Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad aṭ-Ṭūsī al-Ġazālī; latinized Algazelus or Algazel; c. 1058 – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mystics[17][18] of Sunni Islam. His response tofalsafa was far more complex and allowed him to adopt many ofits teachings. [47] The first chapter primarily focuses on how one can develop himself into a person with positive attributes and good personal characteristics . [19] The second argument Ghazali makes is that because humans can only imagine the time before the creation of the world, and your imagination is a fictional thing, that all the time before the world was created is fictional as well, and therefore does not matter as it was not intended by God to be understood by humans. Al-Ghazali is one of the greatest Islamic Jurists, theologians and a mystic.Imam Al Ghazali has a unique position in the history of muslim religious and philosophical thought. He held economic activity to a very high level of importance in his life and thought that others should as well, as he felt that it was not only necessary for the overall benefit to society but also to achieve spiritual wholeness and salvation. His works fortify the position of Sunni Islam, contrasted with different schools of thought. Apart from Kimya, the most celebrated of al-Ghazali’s works in Persian is ‘Nasīhatul Mulūk (The Counseling Kings), written most probably for Sultan Ahmad Sanjar ibn Malekshah. After the existential crisis that caused him to completely re-examine his way of living and his approach to religion, Al-Ghazali put together The Alchemy of Happiness[46] to reassert his fundamental belief that a connection to God was an integral part of the joy of living. (Leiden: Brill, 2006), 248. This book serves as a culmination of the transformation Ghazali goes through during his spiritual awakening. Al-Ghazali, at the peak of his career, held the “ most prestigious and most challenging ” professorial at that time, at the Nizamiyya Madrasa in Baghdad. Translated into English by Mohammed Asim Bilal and available at, At the insistence of his students in Jerusalem, al-Ghazali wrote a concise exposition of Islam. The greater part of it consists of the Persian translation of one of his Arabic books, Bedāyat al-Hedāya (Beginning of Guidance). (Sarajevo: El Kalem, 1996), 167. [40] On the other hand, Hassan Hassan in 2012 argued that while indeed scientific thought in Islam was stifled in the 11th century, the person mostly to blame is not Al-Ghazali but Nizam al-Mulk.[41]. After al-Juwayni’s death in 1085, al-Ghazali departed from Nishapur and joined the court of Nizam al-Mulk, the powerful vizier of the Seljuq sultans, which was likely centered in Isfahan. Therefore, they approach the business perspective with the same ideology and organizational thought. His treatise on early education centered on Islamic laws, God, and memorizing the Qur’an to achieve literary skill. Economic Thought of Al Ghazali (Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre King Abdulaziz Univesity, 1997), 27. His beliefs and thoughts differ in some aspects from the orthodox Asharite school.[33]. He refuted the Ghazali was not in favor of enforcing education on the children and like Plato he was also of the view that education should be given only through motivation. study of modern economic ideas from Islamic scholar s. ... Imam Ghazali and thinkers of his time when talking . He stayed with the Imaam al-Haramayn and gained a deep knowledge of fiqh within a short period. Al-Ghazali makes an impressive speech when he was taken to the king’s court in Nishapur in 1106, giving very influential counsels, asking the sultan once again for excusing him from teaching in Nizamiyya. The collection was gathered by one of his grandchildren after his death, under five sections/chapters. Frank Griffel, Al-Ghazali’s Philosophical Theology, p 75. He is also known as Algazel in the West. [67], Al-Ghazali thought that it should not be necessary to force equality of income in society but that people should be driven by “the spirit of Islamic brotherhood” to share their wealth willingly, but he recognized that it is not always the case. He recognized the necessity of trade and its overall beneficial effect on the economy, but making money in that way might not be considered the most virtuous in his beliefs. Zād-e Ākherat (Provision for the hereafter) is an important Persian book of al-Ghazali but gained less scholarly attention. [67], He established three goals of economic activity that he believed were part of one’s religious obligation as well as beneficial to the individual: “achievement of self-sufficiency for one’s survival; provision for the well-being of one’s progeny; and provision for assisting those in economic need.”[67] He argued that subsistence living, or living in a way that provides the basic necessities for only one’s family, would not be an acceptable practice to be held by the general population because of the detrimental results that he believed that would bring upon the economy, but he acknowledged that some people may choose to live the subsistence lifestyle at their own will for the sake of their personal religious journey. 49 Ghazanfar Mohammad, Islahi Abdul Azim. this video contains the concept of IMAM and STATE ADMINISTRATION Frank Griffel, Al-Ghazali’s Philosophical Theology, p. 77. Until recently, Islamic thought as propounded by al-Ghazali constituted the predominant school with regard to the theory and practice of Islam (and, in particular, Sunnite Islam). He stressed that socialization, family, and schools were central in the achievement of language, morality, and behavior. 17 “Shaykh Jusuf Hamza”, Accessed January, 19, 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MPAbZ_IQgSg. 31 Ghazanfar Mohammad, Islahi Abdul Azim. Indeed he is championed by the orthodoxy for what is viewed as his contribution in preserving orthodox Islam from rationalists and philosophers. [28] While Ghazali does state that any Muslim practicing Islam in good faith is not guilty of apostasy, he does outline in The Criterion that there is one standard of Islam that is more correct than the others, and that those practicing the faith incorrectly should be moved to change. We need only recall thathis father was a pious dervish and his guardian a Sufi devout, … [28] He later returned to Tus and declined an invitation in 1110 from the grand vizier of the Seljuq Sultan Muhammad I to return to Baghdad. (Sarajevo: El Kalem, 1996), 156. Economic Thought of Al Ghazali (Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre King Abdulaziz Univesity, 1997), 20. After bestowing upon him the titles of “Brilliance of the Religion” and “Eminence among the Religious Leaders,” Nizam al-Mulk advanced al-Ghazali in July 1091 to the “most prestigious and most challenging” professorial at the time: in the Nizamiyya madrasa in Baghdad.[28]. He believed that wealth earned could be used in two potential manners. Leading figure in the arena of philosophy and Sufism. One of the key sections of Ghazali’s Revival of the Religious Sciences is Disciplining the Soul, which focuses on the internal struggles that every Muslim will face over the course of his lifetime. Hallaq, Wael, “Was the gate of ijtihad closed”. With his immense intellectual stature and his encyclopaedic knowledge, al-Ghazali has influenced Islamic thought and defined its practice for nearly nine centuries. Modern estimates place it at AH 448 (1056/7), on the basis of certain statements in al-Ghazali's correspondence and autobiography. Imam Ghazali is the first Muslim political and social philosopher who thought society quite according to the demands of human nature. in Khorman (Iran). He renounced office, honor and rank. A number of Muslim philosophers had been following and developing several viewpoints of Greek philosophy, including the Neoplatonic philosophy, and had lead to conflict with several Islamic teachings. However, some of the... ... [Trackback] [...] Find More Informations here: slife.org/western-slang-lingo-and-phrases/ [...], ... [Trackback] [...] Read More: slife.org/winston-churchill-quotes/ [...], ... 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