Pneumonia Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. Care following hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccine probe studies allow classifications of pneumonia which are impossible by any other means. US Department of Health & Human Services; March 1, 2011. A working definition and approach to classification is proposed to guide future research and, to a lesser extent, clinical care. Community-acquired pneumonia in children: A look at the IDSA guidelines. 2012;344:e3325. United States Bureau of the Census. This statement is qualified by the knowledge that vaccine probe studies are potentially powerful instruments for the investigation of pneumonia aetiology and pathogenesis and investigators should take the opportunity to conduct such studies. Pneumonia is a common illness that affects millions of people each year in the United States. Ways you can get pneumonia include: Bacteria and viruses living in your nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread to your lungs. Combining forms meaning the lungs, air or gas, respiration, or pneumonia. Goldman L, et al., eds. The signs and symptoms of pneumonia vary from mild to severe, depending on factors such as the type of germ causing the infection, and your age and overall health. The most common are bacteria and viruses in the air we breathe. PMID:15247911, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm1077. In: Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Kasper DL, Jameson JL, editors. Which is the correct breakdown and translation of the term hypocapnia? Pneumonia: Inflammation of one or both lungs, with dense areas of lung inflammation. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. Barson WJ. Concerns about generalisability only become important after it is accepted that the study results are valid for the restricted group. Olson EJ (expert opinion). Aspiration has two meanings in medicine describing either the drawing in of a fluid with the sucking motion or the drawing out of a fluid with a suction. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 1, 2016. statement and Even the recent modifications to the WHO classification of childhood pneumonia fail to address the problems of poor diagnostic specificity where it is not possible to reliably differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial pneumonia, or to always differentiate pneumonia from malaria, dehydration or acute central nervous system disorders. So, you will need to know the medical terminology associated with respiration. Manual of the international list of causes of death: based on the fourth decenial revision by the International Commission, Paris, October 16 to 19, 1929. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. Sadly, the methods outlined are tried, but not necessarily trusted techniques for improving the diagnosis and classification of pneumonia. Madhi SA, Klugman KP, Vaccine Trialist Group. To answer this question, epidemiologic data will be of help, but other sources of information such as pathophysiology may also play an important role. Community-acquired pneumonia is the most common type of pneumonia. Symptoms may include fever, chills, cough with sputum production, chest pain, and shortness of breath. 2014;5:30–7. Attridge RT, et al. There are many conditions and diseases that afflict the respiratory system. See our safe care and visitor guidelines, plus trusted coronavirus information. Research should continue into the aetiologic diagnosis of pneumonia, as better understanding of aetiology and pathogenesis will improve our ability to prevent pneumonia and provide specific therapy. The commentary then calls for debate to generate consensus classifications in the field, proposing a working definition and way forward focusing on the following three points: (i) pneumonia should be defined as an acute infection of the lung parenchyma by various pathogens, excluding the condition of bronchiolitis; (ii) defining pneumonia as a group of specific (co)infections with different characteristics is an ideal that currently has limited use, because the identification of aetiologic organisms in individuals is often not possible (however, the benefits of classifying pneumonia into specific, more homogenous phenotypes should be carefully considered when designing research studies); and (iii) investigation of more homogenous pneumonia groupings is achievable and is likely to yield more rapid advances in the field. Schauner S, et al. However, taken to an extreme, the pursuit of representativeness can defeat the goal of identifying causal biological relations. Or they may vomit, have a fever and cough, appear restless or tired and without energy, or have difficulty breathing and eating. It is clear that all of the systems of classification have significant deficiencies, primarily relating to an inability to determine the aetiology of cases of pneumonia, and substantial heterogeneity of aetiology, phenotype and pathology. In: Manual of Pathological Anatomy. Overview of pneumonia. The medical literature includes the term ‘pneumonia’ or ‘pneumonitis’ in a col-lection of diagnostic terms for a number of conditions that are not related to … To go along with these issues, there are specific medical terms that you will need to know. Google Scholar. Washington: Government Printing Office; 1931. Laennec RT. The question of generalising study results to wider populations is a separate consideration. Pneumonia, Including Necrotizing Pulmonary Infections (Lung Abscess). Alphabetical Listing of Word Parts Article  Classifications of pneumonia in clinical care and research will be limited by the means available but can be made more specific using the approaches described in Table 1, and combinations thereof (Table 1 is not a complete list of all available approaches). In medical terminology, suffixes usually signify a medical condition, surgical procedure, diagnostic term, test information, disease, or part of speech. Accessed 3 Oct 2004. Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pnu. Check out the following resources to support your learning and understanding of medical terminology: Quick Introduction- provides an overview and introduction to medical terminology. The commentary provided by Dr Mackenzie summarises nicely the challenges associated with arriving at a universally accepted definition of pneumonia, which addresses different patient groups, aetiologies and underlying disease mechanisms. 2014;20:215. Pneumonia definition is - an acute disease that is marked by inflammation of lung tissue accompanied by infiltration of alveoli and often bronchioles with white blood cells (such as neutrophils) and fibrinous exudate, is characterized by fever, chills, cough, difficulty in breathing, fatigue, chest pain, and reduced lung expansion, and is typically caused by an infectious agent (such as a bacterium, virus, or fungus). Google Scholar. In: Rothman KJ, Greenland S, Lash TL, editors. Pneumonia in the immunocompetent patient. Check out the following to get going. We can breakdown 'myocarditis' into three parts which will clarify the meaning of this term. The problem with our current approach to the classification of pneumonia is twofold: (i) it results in widespread empirical, and often unnecessary, use of antimicrobials that contributes to pathogen resistance; and (ii) it contributes to heterogeneity among the groups of subjects compared in research, causing misclassification bias and mixtures of effects that threaten internal validity. The prefix 'myo' means muscle, followed by the root 'card' which means heart and then the suffix 'itis' means inflammation. It is also of note that ‘other acute lower respiratory infections’ comprise three other codes (J20–22) for acute bronchitis, bronchiolitis and unspecified conditions. BMJ. Dockrell DH, et al. Journal of Family Practice. Pneumonias are categorized by site and cause. Most medical terms are compound words made up of root words which are combined with prefixes (at the start of a word) and suffixes (at the end of a word). 2014;5:8–17. NIH website; Available from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pnu/types. PubMed Central  Hunter JD. Pneumonia. It needs to be considered how these two domains—public health policy for the treatment and prevention of pneumonia, and research to answer specific questions of pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention—can better interact. Community-acquired pneumonia in children: Clinical features and diagnosis. Each of the three points includes a qualifying statement that, if heeded, should benefit the field of research. When the prefixes are detached from a term, it is followed by a hyphen (-). Each individual part of the respiratory system is equally important. The first descriptions of its clinical and pathological features were made 22 centuries later in 1819 by Laennec [6] while Rokitansky [7] in 1842 was the first to differentiate lobar and bronchopneumonia. Your body usually prevents these germs from infecting your lungs. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014. blepharo/pyo/rrhea. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Accessed April 20, 2016. The infection may be bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic. We can breakdown 'myocarditis' into three parts which will clarify the meaning of this term. Like hospital-acquired pneumonia, health care-acquired pneumonia can be caused by bacteria that are more resistant to antibiotics. In studies of heterogeneous groups the research problems that may arise include an inability to determine aetiology due to a limited range of methods; pathology or microbiology with disparate patterns; and conflicting results between studies that investigate risk factors, diagnostic methods or treatments. Wood; 1838. Aspiration is more likely if something disturbs your normal gag reflex, such as a brain injury or swallowing problem, or excessive use of alcohol or drugs. pneumonia. Accessed April 15, 2016. Similarly, misclassification of pneumonia limits high quality epidemiological and clinical research. In the interim, better ways to determine the aetiology of pneumonia need to be sought, and researchers should consider the benefits of using methods of classification to provide more homogeneous groups, the study of which is likely to provide clearer answers to research questions. Nature. Accessed April 15, 2016. Anyone can develop pneumonia, but certain groups of people, including older … Cite this article. Lobar pneumonia affects most of a single lobe; bronchopneumonia involves smaller lung areas in several lobes; interstitial pneumonia affects tissues surrounding the alveoli and bronchi of the lung. Most pneumonia occurs when a breakdown in your body's natural defenses allows germs to invade and multiply within your lungs. The nose without the pharynx or the lungs without the bronchi would be nothing more than spare parts, like on an old junker in a garage. Following the publication of a volume of Pneumonia focused on diagnosis, the journal’s Editorial Board members debated the definition and classification of pneumonia and came to a consensus on the need to revise both of these. pneumo-. In: Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 2005;60:672–8. Lack of energy and strength. © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. In summary, refining the definition and classification of pneumonia is a formidable task as multiple terms are used in multiple fields of medical practice and research. The magnitude of this problem is most evident in the common inability to identify the infectious organism(s) causing lung infection, necessitating empiric antibiotic therapy. By using this website, you agree to our Accessed 9 Dec 2015. For example, in the absence of specimens from the lung, studies of aetiology may misclassify causality to organisms detected in nasopharyngeal or sputum samples—in this situation, misclassification bias occurs due to the difficulty in accurately determining the aetiology of lung infection. 25th ed. Suffixes are attached at the end of words to change or add to the original meaning. Pneumonia can range in seriousness from mild to life-threatening. A classic sign of bacterial pneumonia is a cough that produces thick, blood-tinged or yellowish-greenish sputum with pus. Breathing may be labored. Community-acquired pneumonia is a lung infection that occurs in noninstitutionalized people, typically involving organisms such as viruses, Streptococcus pneumoniae, … The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Most pneumonia occurs when a breakdown in your body's natural defenses allows germs to invade and multiply within your lungs. 3rd ed. Pumonologist (Word Breakdown) R/CF: Pulmon/o (lung) S: logist (one who studies) Pneumonia (Definition) Inflammation of the lung tissue. Heterogeneous groups may result in disparate and unfocused studies, which fail to target the most important types of pneumonia and the most important questions, and make limited contributions. Introduction. the World Health Organization [WHO], National Institutes of Health [NIH], and Harrison’s), are the most prone to heterogeneity. 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