It discusses about the legislations governing Plastic Waste Management and Handling Rules (2011, 2016 and 2018) in India, amendments, current status of implementation as well as opportunities and challenges in PWM. Global initiatives on the ban of plastics, collection and recycling mechanisms of plastic waste are addressed and compared with the Indian scenario. Natural 'plastic products' occur in such things as animals' horns, animals' milk, insects, plants and trees. In high-rise buildings the waste is picked up by the building maintenance personnel, or special vertical chutes are provided to deliver the waste to a central location for storage, processing, or resource recovery. Total. Creating public awareness regarding the healthy environment, managing wastes, alternative disposal methods, establishing the incineration mechanisms, and drop-off-areas facilities for plastic recycling also recommended to ensure a healthy environment. A small survey is carried out to thoroughly understand PWM in a community. Simon, N and Schulte, M.L. Science. Many steps are necessary to be taken by the governments to regulate the plastic businesses and to bring innovations in the waste management. Natl Acad. A questionnaire (supplemented with an observation matrix) was used to collectdata from the sampled population. Sixteen of the top 20 mismanaged plastic waste producers are low to middle-income countries. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic ,4.75 mm and meso- and macroplastic .4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove ,4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface. 11 0 obj Jambeck, et al. The results revealed that the types of plastic waste generated by these two communitiesincluded: Polyethylene Terephathalate (PET), High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), LowDensity Polyethylene (LDPE), Poly propylene (PP), Polystyrene (PS), Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) and otherplastic materials layered from other types. Transportation of C&D waste was reported to cause the highest environmental impact in most of the articles. • Native fish /Type /Page of Europe’s p lastic waste was recycled, another third ended up in landfills, and from the rest only the energy was recovered. River plastic emissions to the world’s oceans. Again in 2014, altho ugh more than 65% of all packaging waste was recycled in the EU, less than 40% of plastic packaging waste was recycled. >> Sussarellu, R. 2016. This article demonstrates that a simple behaviour change programme can help achieve significant sustainability in our day to day life. Evidence based examples are illustrated in the article with viable solution recommended for implementation. entanglement of animals or swallowing pieces of plastics and causing infection, starvation and even mortality), ... Large plastic items, such as discarded fishing lines and nets, can cause attachment to invertebrates, birds, mammals, and turtles, salted grasses, and corals. >> It blocks drainage lines and fill up land space causing floods and erosion thereby causing deterioration of the Nigeria roads. All rights reserved. ; A slide-deck summary of global plastics is available here. Electronic sources of waste. Plastics are essential and ubiquitous materials in our daily lives and address numerous societal challenges. /Rotate 0 concentrated source of waste, in quantity, while plastic bottles were the most highly concentrated source, in mass. This report is taken from the Fishing News Ltd. publication, 'Marine Pollution and Sea Life'. PCBs and chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides such as DDTs and HCHs (BHCs) were measured in air, water, ice and snow samples collected around the Japanese research stations in Antarctica and adjacent oceans during December 1980 to March 1982. 2014. Science. Figure 2 – Plastic waste by source per day . A selective list of research papers from C&D waste literature, which applied life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology has been reviewed in this paper. 2016. Chlorinated hydrocarbons were also detected in snow, ice, lake water and sea water samples, in which rather high concentrations were found in snow and ice samples. Construction and demolition (C&D) activities generate a large amount of waste throughout their life cycle. Responsible production and consumption of plastics, emerging trends in PWM in relation to Integrated Waste Management (IWM) are highlighted. endobj : Argentina (2012); Australia (SA, ACT, TAS); Bangladesh (2002); . << This is our main data entry on plastics, with a particular focus on its pollution of the environment. /Tabs /S Varying concentrations of organochlorine compounds (PCB, DDT and its metabolites, HCB, and HCH-isomeres) lead to characteristic residue patterns. Waste that we see in our surroundings is also known as garbage. pattern of the contaminants analyzed, thus giving an insight into the global distribution of organochlorine pollution. /Tabs /S endobj PLOS One. The primary cause of environmental pollution is the disposal of plastic wastes. It provides some simple tips of achieving sustainability (e.g. /Type /Page Environ. /Resources 25 0 R Plastic is Used Almost Everywhere. /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] Eriksen et al. << /Rotate 0 The study investigated plastic waste management practices in the rural households of the Kingdom of Eswatiniusing Zikhotheni and Zombodze Emuva communities as case study sites. A total of 109 households (54 in Zikhotheni and 55 in Zombodze Emuva) were selectedusing simple random sampling. Presentation: Plastic Pollution- Sources, Global Production, Global “Hotspots”, Impacts on Biodivers... PCB and chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in Antarctic atmosphere and hydrosphere. Plastic-made products and bags are widely used worldwide due to the advantages of convenience, availability, and cheapness. General summary Microplastic is plastic fragments smaller than 5 millimeters. These are fairly recently discovered in high and increasing concentrations in … The trend of dumping plastic garbage into the marine ecosystem, jeopardize the survival of enormous species because of infections with plastic scraps. • Low-Carbon Development USA 113, 2430–2435; 11. This study can benefit the scholarly community, because it brings more light to freshwater ecosystems, while most sources in the field focus on marine ecosystems. from ocean-based sources (fishing nets, fishing ropes). /Rotate 0 It also offer help for policymakers to consider regulatingthe manufacture and use of plastic bags. ; 3. Sixteen of the top 20 mismanaged plastic waste producers are low, (PET). Sci. Here we show that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic polystyrene particles (90 micrometers) inhibits hatching, decreases growth rates, and alters feeding preferences and innate behaviors of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) larvae. plastic waste through source reduction—the process of minimizing the amount of plastic used. The main land- based sources of marine plastic waste include storm water discharge, combined sewer overflows, tourism related litter, illegal dumping, industrial activities e.g. /Rect [44.5200004578 59.8800010681 143.2200012207 69.3000030518] 2016. Management Sources of Plastic Waste: Plastic waste can be mainly classified as: (1)Municipal Waste (2)Industrial Waste Plastic wastes represent a considerable part of municipal wastes, while huge amounts of plastic waste arise as a byproduct in industry and agriculture Of the total plastic waste, over 78 wt% of this total corresponds to thermoplastics and the remaining to thermosets MSW is a heterogeneous mixture of a wide variety of materials like fibre, plastics, papers, wood material, food remnants, and so on. plastic waste recycled back into the economy since 1950. Together, we can cut down on plastic waste and reduce the amount of marine debris polluting the planet’s oceans and waterways. • Sustainable energy Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 8 0 obj /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] 2017. The Grantham Institute Briefing Paper No 19. Combating the menace of plastic waste pollution has become a global environmental challenge. /MediaBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] >> • Waste Management Recently many countries, including Pakistan, Yemen, Bangladesh, South Africa, India, Nigeria, and Kenya, have banned the plastic bags because of the pressing concerns over the negative and hazardous impact on the water, land, and marine ecosystem and natural environment. By sector, by type, by sector, 2015 4 Figure 1.3 country country! By the governments to regulate the plastic businesses and to bring innovations in the Baltic and Gulf of St 1.3. To various household activities needs to be taken by the governments to regulate the plastic businesses and bring... Innovations in the ocean analysis of the world environment day, 2018 in PWM and their in... Answer additional common questions on the topic major land-based sources with the Indian scenario waste, in.... 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2020 sources of plastic waste pdf