Al-Ghazali is faced with two important questions: the relationship of the scholars to the common people and to the rulers. Imam Ghazali and other mystics have made a serious mistake in understanding the concept of 'preparing for the hereafter'. 3, p. 16-18; Mizan al-‘Amal, p. 86. Ghazali’s method of education appears modern than the educationists’ of contemporary society. It is enough for a young girl to learn the fundamentals of religion. He is in favour of conducting lessons in an interesting way. This is not to say that the secular sciences should be completely ignored; they have their uses, and are needed by society. * child’s friend should be of good moral, intelligent, truthful and have self control. There also appeared a further category of mudarrisin of higher education, who engaged in research and university teaching; this coincided with the growth of specialized educational institutions (madaris, etc.). Scholars, teachers and pupils al-Ghazali website. The teachers should take into account the differences in character and ability between pupils, and deal with each one of them appropriately. the history of England. We do not know the name of the architect but it was a splendid building. In his criticism of the scholars of his time there may be an element of self-criticism since, before undergoing a spiritual crisis, he first immersed himself in politics and academic disputes seeking fame and social advancement, subsequently foresaking the wealth and influence he had enjoyed, and retreating into seclusion and asceticism. Figure 9: View of the interior of a madrasa, from a poem by Elyas Nizami (1140-1209), dated c.1550 © Bridgeman Art Library / Institute of Oriental Studies, St. Petersburg, Russia, MS D-212. This crisis brought on a physical illness which prevented him from speaking or teaching, and, having attained the truth by means of the light with which God had illuminated his heart, finally caused him to leave his post and renounce wealth, fame and influence. It is therefore necessary to understand the special characteristics of this period in order to deal with the child in an effective and sound manner [16]. Arts intended for pleasure or entertainment al-Ghazali tends to declare either reprehensible or forbidden. In fact, the revealed and the rational sciences complement—and indeed are indispensable to—one another. Teachers are indispensable to society [54]. Religious and doctrinal questions are left to the scholars, and worldly things and matters of State come under the authority of the rulers. He favored lecture, participation of students in the teaching and learning process, discussion and tutorials. They should not be allowed to wear silk or gold, which are proscribed by the Faith. 508 On SlideShare. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Methods of Teaching and Techniques: • Ghazali has recommended the following teaching methods and techniques, which are based on psychological principles. He is deadly against of using punishment in educational institutions, because it did not bring any positive result in the learners. He must even keep secret truths that cannot be divulged for fear that they may have a harmful effect on people or cause them to doubt their own faith or reason. The following text was originally published as: “AL-GHAZALI (vol 1058-1111; A.H. 450-505)” by Nabil Nofal in the series “Thinkers on Education” in Prospects: the quarterly review of comparative education (Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), vol. Although al-Ghazali places the Sufis above the ‘ulama’ (fuqaha’ and philosophers), he does not spare them from his criticism or attacks. The young Ghazali was a brilliant student with incisive wit and sharp intellect. But he also stresses that marriage and the founding of a family is a great responsibility, which one should be properly prepared to assume. Although he holds that girls may claim from their parents, and wives from their husbands, the right to be educated, such education is very limited. Al-Ghazali aimed his attacks more against the principle of the infallibility of the imam than against the esoteric interpretation of shari‘a. Hence religious subjects are preferred, since they are conducive to the godliness of the eternal hereafter rather than the mediocrity of this transient world. Man is neither good nor evil by nature, although his natural disposition is closer to good than to evil. 5. The Muslim philosophers and scholars (al-Kindi, al-Farabi, Ibn an-Nadim, Ibn Sina and others) had a passion for classifying the sciences, and were influenced in this respect by the Greek philosophers, in particular Aristotle. The result of Imam Al-Ghazali research is the fact Imam AL-Ghazali is very concerned about the application of metohds in education his children. possibly, some philosophy under Imam al-Juwaini, the most illustrious Shafi‘ite (one of the four Sunnite Schools of Law) faqih (jurist, scholar of Islamic religious law) of the day. These are in turn divided into: (i) revealed sciences, of which there are four: the fundamentals (the Book, sunna, ijma‘ and the teachings of the companions of the Prophet); the branches (fiqh and ethics); means (linguistics and grammar); and the accessories (reading, tafsir, the sources of fiqh, annals and geneology); and (ii) non-revealed sciences (medicine, mathematics, poetry and history) [36]. Awareness and knowledge are the most important characteristics of man, who derives knowledge from two sources: the human attributes of the senses and reason, which are deficient, allow man to know the material world in which he lives; while the divine properties of revelation and inspiration enable him to discover the invisible world. [48] Al-Munqidh min ad-Dalal, passim; Faisal at-Tafriqa, pp. However, social necessities may force scholars to work and they are consequently compelled to accept State remuneration. Method of education Ghazali wrote in countless books on ethics and Sufism about the training, including its methods mainly in this case about three approaches: religious, mystical and Greek. Born as Abu Hamid Muhammad Ibn Muhammad At-Tusi Al-Ghazali, Imam Al-Ghazali is one of the most well-known Islamic thinkers even in the West.Although he did not consider himself as a philosopher, he is considered as one of the leading figures when it comes to Philosophy and Sufism. He even goes so far as to refuse to recognize the right of a subject to rebel against an unjust leader (a question which greatly exercised the minds of Muslim fuqaha’) and to leave the victims of social oppression no other escape than that of emigration. Imam Ghazali argues that just as there is an end to this noble objective there is also a beginning to it, which must be made firm for one to achieve success. 1, p. 13-14, 46-8; Fatihat al-‘Ulum, p. 35-9; Ar-Risala al-Laduniya, pp. (Source). As Islamic society evolved, numerous changes took place in the nature of the educated élite and its role in society. Imam Ghazali first time identified compulsory and optional subjects for the curriculum and insited the learners to learn the compulsory subjects. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The research method used in this thesis is library research. However, al-Ghazali’s attack against esotericism was not as successful as his attack against the philosophers. SCHOOL FEES. He used to lecture before audiences of three hundred and even more great learned man in his time to their satisfaction. 1, p. 111 et. It is important that boys should begin to attend maktab (elementary school) at an early age, for what is learnt then is as engraved in stone. Mechanism and Steps of Simulated Teaching. List of Articles. [11] See Ma‘arij al-Quds fi Madarij Ma‘rifat an-Nafs and Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. ‘Ulama say that, should all the books on different disciplines be burnt out, this book is sufficient to recreate them. In conclusion, Al-Ghazali’s curriculum is similar to the concept of holistic education which is characterized by intellectual, emotional, physical, and spiritual developments. This paper investigates Imam al-Ghazali's views on economic activities with emphasis on the ethical aspects. Figure 1: Imaginary portrait of Al-Ghazali. Mathematics, logic and the natural sciences do not contradict religion, and may be studied. He is in favour of conducting lessons in an interesting way. Main: Site: Education. [38] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. In dealing with education, al-Ghazali was clearly influenced by Ibn Miskawayh, see his Tahdhib al-Akhlaq wa-Tathir al-A‘raq. He focuses spiritual and also emphasis materialistic development of man. They must therefore be advised that their friends should possess the following five qualities: intelligence, good morals, good character, abstemiousness and truthfulness [18]. However, the existence of the individual is insignificant compared with the existence and strength of the group. While Peter the Hermit was rallying the European masses to join in the crusades, al-Ghazali was urging the Arabs to submit to their rulers or to turn away from society. Imam Ghazali was born in at Ghazala near Tus in 1058 A. D. He is called Ghazali because he was born at Ghazala and also his father was known as Ghazali by his profession. [55] Al-Ghazali proposes a ‘professional code of ethics’ for teachers, who, he says, should practice what they preach, and be an example to their pupils and to people in general [56]. [25] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. Imam al-Ghazali is one of the greatest reformers Islam has produced. One of the most appealing topics of this book is the chapter on Knowledge, where the great Imam shed light as to what is knowledge. 1, p. 28-29, 43. These methods and techniques are widely used and educators all over the world agrees with their usefulness. The elementary curriculum had a pronounced religious character, and consisted mainly of learning the Koran and the fundamentals of religion, reading and writing, and occasionally the rudiments of poetry, grammar, narration and arithmetic, with some attention being devoted to moral instruction. The common people have no choice but to obey. In support of this claim, it is sufficient to note some of the writings on education that have come down to us: – The work by Az-Zarnuji (died 1175 CE; 571 ) entitled Ta‘lim al-Muta‘allim Tariq at-Ta‘allum [Teaching the Student the Method of Study] is basically a compilation of passages from al-Ghazali’s Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din and Mizan al-‘Amal reproduced literally, with a few minor additions: This work, which is noted for its conciseness, simplicity of style and liveliness, was one of the most widely circulated books on education. Here too, al-Ghazali continues the Islamic traditions of education, in which the Koran was first to be memorized without being explained, the fundamentals of religion inculcated without clarification and practice was enjoined before the emergence of commitment rooted in conviction. Beirut, Catholic Press, 1951. These changing interests can be used by educators to attract the boy to school, by offering first the lure of ball games, then ornaments and fine clothes, then responsibilities, and finally by awakening a longing for the hereafter [17]. Education in the process requires a tool, which is teaching or study groups. 0 Number of Embeds. [37] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. – Knowledge, which is reprehensible whether in small or large amounts (witchcraft, magic, astrology). The comportment of the man of virtue is governed by reliance on God rather than an urge to achieve supremacy, and his habits are more those of patience than of struggle [13]. 2. 9.1. He should also be considered as a model and an example. Education should promote desirable traits and behavior of individuals. As a teacher, Al-Ghazali modeled this sincerity to the end of his life. The concept of 'preparing for the hereafter' depends on one's outlook about the relationship between this world and the hereafter. With the emergence of the new religion (Islam) and the civilization that arose with it, a set of religious and linguistic disciplines came into being, among which were those dealing with the Koran, hadith, fiqh, linguistics, the biographies of the Prophet and his companions, and the military campaigns of the Prophet, which were designated the ‘Arab sciences’. His educational philosophy based on his personal experience. 2, p. 213-14, 270-71; vol. As military and intellectual confrontation flared up between the Sunnites and the Shi‘ites, and between the ‘Abbasid Caliphate and the Fatimid State and its partisans and adherents in the Mashriq, al-Ghazali joined the fray. For Al-Ghazali, the purpose of society is to apply shari‘a, and the goal of man is to achieve happiness close to God. However, an excess of music and singing should be avoided: as with medicine, they should be taken only in prescribed doses. True knowledge can only be unveiled once the self has been cultivated through learning and exercise for what is engraved on the Well-Guarded Tablet (the contents of the Holy Koran) to be imprinted on it. Moreover, before using his mwthod, he also considers the condition and situation of the sudent. [6] These works include: Bidayat al-Hidaya, Ayyuha-l-Walad, Al-Kashf wa-t-Tabyin fi Ghurur al-Khalq Ajma‘in, Al-Maqsid al-Asnà fi Sharh* Ma‘anì Asma’ Allah al-Husnà, Jawahir ai-Qur’an, Ar-Risala al-Laduniya and Al-Madnun bihi ‘alà ghair Ahlihi. 3, p. 62-63, 243. Secular (or instrumental) knowledge (Ilm al-Áliyah). He then moved to Jurjan and studied under Imam Abu Nasr Ismaeli. Imam ghazali philosophy of education ... Views. Al-Ghazali’s influence may be witnessed by a number of factors, such as: -The profundity, power and comprehensiveness of his thought, contained in some fifty different works, the most important of which are Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, Tahafut al-Falasifa and al-Munqidh min a-alal, which are still studied today. However, that does not mean that the scholar or teacher must teach everybody everything. Imam Ghazali advocated the need of moral education both in theory and practice. He made teaching aids part of a routine lesson so that the students will be … dated 1308 held in Paris. [32] Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. Thoughts about Psychology Imam Al-Ghazali contribution to the moral philosophy is the great example of his wide-range knowledge. Imam Ghazali one of the most famous Muslim thinkers discusses the education in his books in detail. (Source). ; Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din, vol. He lived in Egypt, Palestine and Syria and worked variously as a teacher, preacher and judge. In his view, women are for the most part of dubious morality and limited intelligence; a virtuous woman is a rare phenomenon. The validity of data was discussed and consulted from data findings to experts and peers. Exposition of the Method of Bringing Up Children from Earliest Childhood, Teaching Them Good Behaviour and Refining Their Character." It contains four major sections: Acts of worsh… Society is composed of human beings, and in al-Ghazali’s view cannot be virtuous. It covers almost all fields of Islamic sciences: fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), kalam (theology) and sufism. These clashes, in turn, helped to shape Islamic society and civilization, and ended in the 11th century CE with the victory of the alliance of the fuqaha’ and Sufis over the philosophers and scholars. the philosophy, which he formulated over a period of 10 years, resembles to the Philosophy of Plato. Indeed, this is the work he wrote after coming out of his period of meditation and seclusion." Life. 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