The North African nation of Libya covers 1,759,541 km2 of land area. We partner with civil society, journalists and media outlets, libraries, teachers, youth, and community leaders, among others. It has the northernmost tip in Africa, Cape Angela. People living in the Western Sahara are known as Sahrawis, "Southerners" or "Southern Berber.". The focus of Roman energy had to be on the emerging threat of the Huns. When Egypt entered the Bronze Age, the Maghreb remained focused on small-scale subsistence in small, highly mobile groups. The desert landscape is one of the toughest to navigate and endure, best of luck! The small island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe is located in the Gulf of Guinea, off the coast of Central Africa. As the Tassili n'Ajjer and other rock art findings in the Sahara have shown, the Sahara also hosted various populations before its rapid desertification in 3500 B.C and even today continues to host small populations of nomadic trans-Saharan peoples. In the eleventh century, a reformist movement made up of members that called themselves the Almoravid dynasty expanded south into Sub-Saharan Africa. During the 1950s and 1960s all of the North African states gained independence. The Numidian wars are notable for launching the careers of both Gaius Marius, and Sulla, and stretching the constitutional burden of the Roman republic as Marius required a professional army, something previously contrary to Roman values, to overcome the talented military leader Jugurtha. The countries are located along ocean coast and in river valleys because in other territories people do not have enough resources for life. Designed to push the German Afrika Korps out of Eastern Cyrenaica and relieve the besieged British troops at Tobruk, the operation was a total failure as Wavell's attacks were broken on the German defenses. Despite the differences that exist between these countries, we highlight some of the key points that businesses and policymakers should consider when thinking about North Africa. These mountains are part of the fold mountain system that also runs through much of Southern Europe. Some Berbers were members of the Early African Church (but evolved their own Donatist doctrine), some were Berber Jews, and some adhered to traditional Berber religion. miles) 52.4 % of the population is urban (129,068,218 people in 2019). The tallest peaks are in the High Atlas range in south-central Morocco, which has many snowcapped peaks. Even scholars debate what nations should officially constitute this nation, and there are something along the lines of 3 scholarly accepted definitions. The type of government that exists in Morocco is a constitutional monarchy. Like Algeria, desert covers most of Egypt. Overview of North Africa North African countries hold an important place in the Bank Group's history: all were present in Khartoum (Sudan), when newly independent African countries gathered to discuss the creation of a premier financial institution for Africans, by Africans.  It was during this period that domesticated plants and animals were introduced in the region, spreading from the north and east to the southwest. Sheltered valleys in the Atlas Mountains, the Nile Valley and Delta, and the Mediterranean coast are the main sources of fertile farming land.  Between the A.D. 600s and 1000s, Arabs from the Middle East swept across the region in a wave of Muslim conquest. Tunisia has some beautiful beaches as well. Oil rigs are scattered throughout the deserts of Libya and Algeria. " Early humans may have comprised a large, interbreeding population dispersed across Africa whose spread was facilitated by a wetter climate that created a "green Sahara", around 330,000 to 300,000 years ago. Egypt has the most varied industrial base, importing technology to develop electronics and engineering industries, and maintaining the reputation of its high-quality cotton textiles. Trade routes between Europe and North Africa remained intact until the coming of Islam. Elsewhere, irrigation is essential to improve crop yields on the desert margins. largely due to a tilt in the Earth's orbit. She ingeniously devised a method to extend the cowhide to a high proportion, thus gaining a large territory. North Africa has three main geographic features: the Sahara, the ATLAS MOUNTAINS in the west, and the NILE RIVER AND DELTA in the east. Around 90 percent of the nation is desert. Welcome to the other side of the Mediterranean! This uprising is commonly referred to as the "Arab spring".. 97.0% of São Tomé and Príncipeâs popâ¦ One country, two continents. A reason that countries with coastal access have limited water resources in North Africa is Aquifers beneath the Sahara The Great Man-Made River provides water for drinking and irrigation by using pipelines to pump water from Typical Mediterranean crops, such as olives, figs, dates and citrus fruits, also thrive in these areas. The Nile Valley is particularly fertile and most of the population in Egypt live close to the river. Tunisians have a diverse economy which continues to enjoy growth in the current economic climate. Note: This is still a disputed land subject to ongoing conflict. Countries of North Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia, Mauritania, Western Sahara, Mali, Libya, Morocco, Niger and Chad . It has the second largest reserves of oil in the African continent. The Maghreb formerly had a significant Jewish population, almost all of whom emigrated to France or Israel when the North African nations gained independence. This process of Arabization and Islamization has defined the cultural landscape of North Africa ever since. Its 92 million inhabitants, majority observing the religion of Isla, make Egypt the most populous country in North Africa and â¦ By 700, most of North Africa had come under Muslim rule. North Africa is an economically prosperous area, generating one-third of Africa's total GDP. Located in north part of Africa, Northern Africa is composed of 7 countries. Of course you know about the Egyptian pyramids, but did you know that Sudan has more pyramids than Egypt? Although the number of indigenous people in northern Africa is small, they try to preserve their traditions. She was also rejected by the Trojan prince Aeneas according to Virgil, thus creating a historical enmity between Carthage and Rome, as Aeneas would eventually lay the foundations for Rome. The Mediterranean Sea borders the nation of Tunisia on its east and north side by the Mediterranean Sea. As of 2016, the population estimate for the country was 40.4 million, making it the 33rd most populous nation in the world. ), Due to the recent African origin of modern humans, the history of Prehistoric North Africa is important to the understanding of pre-hominid and early modern human history in Africa. List of countries in Africa. They recede to the south and east, becoming a steppe landscape before meeting the Sahara desert, which covers more than 75 percent of the region. Its economy is largely based on hydrocarbons.  As a result, many modern African nation-states that are included in the Sahel evidence cultural similarities and historical overlap with their North African neighbours. It has an estimate of 500,000 inhabitants. North African countries list. The People's Democratic Republic of Algeria is Africa's largest nation with an area of 919,595 mi2. The economy is largely built around hydrocarbons with Algeria having the second largest oil reserves in Africa. The island nation was one of the important centers of the African slave trade. Others[Like whom?] Algeria covers 2,381,741 sq km. However, these areas are not generally considered part of North Africa, but rather Southern Europe, due to their European-based cultures and religion. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in the west, to Egypt's Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the east. Those ideas and innovations reached other regions through cultural diffusion. It is also classified as an Upper Middle Income country by the World Bank and it has the largest reserves of oil in Africa. On June 15, Wavell sought to regain the momentum in North Africa and launched Operation Battleaxe.  The Islamic influence in the area is also significant and North Africa is a major part of the Muslim world. Algeria has the largest defense budget in Africa. The diverse peoples of North Africa are usually categorized along ethno-linguistic lines. The 2013 estimate showed that 6,411,776 persons lived in Libya. North African cuisine is the product of a whole host of historical, cultural and topographical factors. In politics and academia, north African countries are commonly grouped with the Middle East under the umbrella of MENA. There are whites and indians in South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Over the years, Berbers have been influenced by contact with other cultures: Greeks, Phoenicians, Egyptians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Europeans and Africans. The Phoenicians colonized much of North Africa including Carthage and parts of present-day Morocco (including Chellah, Essaouira and Volubilis). These peoples, physically quite similar, formed a single population in many areas, as Berbers and Egyptians merged into Arabic and Muslim culture. The Nile Valley forms a narrow fertile thread that runs along the length of the country. The Sahara's major landforms include ergs, large seas of sand that sometimes form into huge dunes; the hammada, a level rocky plateau without soil or sand; and the reg, a level plain of gravel or small stones. IREX works in 18 countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Keep reading: Take a journey through West Africa and East Africa next. The largest ethnic groups in North Africa Berbers and West Africans in the west and the Arabs in the east approaching the Middle East. 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