"[40], The ultimate political vehicle for the Jacobin movement was the Reign of Terror overseen by the Committee of Public Safety, who were given executive powers to purify and unify the Republic. It was created at the time of the French Revolution. "Robespierre," by Mazauric, C., in "Dictionnaire historique de la Revolution francaise," ed. Retrieved January 12, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/jacobin-clubs. The Jacobins were known as sans-culottes and that means who were those without knee breeches. By September 1792, Robespierre indeed had also become the dominant voice in the Jacobin Club. A Jacobin (French pronunciation: [ʒakɔbɛ̃]), in the context of the French Revolution, was a member of the Jacobin Club, a revolutionary far-left political movement. In August 1792, there were 26,000 Jacobin clubs in France. Solve previous years history questions for UPSC Mains, visit the linked article. Jacobin clubs served as debating socitites where politically minded Frenchmen aired their views and discussed current political issues. JOHN CANNON "Jacobins Their members had faith, enthusiasm, recklessness and ambition. The Jacobins were the most radical element of the French Revolution, advocating the destruction of all in society, including the monarchy, property, money, contracts, everything, even people — in order to create a new order with the … The cultural influence of the Jacobin movement was effective in reinforcing these rudiments, developing a milieu for revolution. [6], When the Estates General of 1789 in France convened in May–June 1789 at the Palace of Versailles, the Jacobin club, originating as the Club Breton, comprised exclusively a group of Breton representatives attending those Estates General. Encyclopedia.com. ." Encyclopedia.com. This was the dominant, third phase of the Jacobins' existence. "I denounce the assassins of the people to you and you respond, 'let them act as they will.' However, the date of retrieval is often important. This apparent victory of the Montagnards intensified their antipathies of the Girondins, and more proposals were vented to get rid of the Girondins. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). [11], From then on, a polarization process started among the members of the Jacobin Club, between a group around Robespierre – after September 1792 called 'Montagnards' or 'Montagne', in English 'the Mountain' – and the Girondins. Its members avenged themselves on the Directory by supporting Napoleon Bonaparte. When these two revolutionary groups took seats in the French National Assembly, the political left and right dichotomy was born. The leader of the group was Maximilian Robespierre. Encyclopedia.com. See alsoCommittee of Public Safety; Danton, Georges-Jacques; French Revolution; Girondins; Marat, Jean-Paul; Robespierre, Maximilien. In October 1793, 21 prominent Girondins were guillotined. The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (French: Société des amis de la Constitution), renamed the Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité) after 1792 and commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins (/ˈdʒækəbɪn/; French: [ʒakɔbɛ̃]), was the most influential political club during the French Revolution of 1789. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Encyclopedia.com. . New York: Columbia University Press, 1942. Main battles: Battle of Killiecrankie (1689), Dunkeld Siege (1689), Massacre of Glencoe … 1968- (Arnold Steven Jacobs, Jr.), https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jacobins-0, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/jacobin-clubs, https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jacobins, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/jacobins, https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/jacobin, https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/jacobin-1, https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/jacobin-2, Robespierre, Maximilien François Marie Isidore de (1758–1794). 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